Relativistic uniform system is an ideal
physical system, in which the mass density (or any other physical quantity)
depends on the Lorentz factor of the system’s particles, but is constant in the
reference frames associated with the moving particles.
Содержание
Difference from the classical uniform system
In classical physics, the ideal uniform body
model is widely used, in which the mass density is constant throughout the
volume of the body or is given as the volume-averaged quantity. This model
simplifies solution of physical problems and allows us to quickly estimate
different physical quantities. For example, the body mass is calculated by
simply multiplying the mass density by the body volume, which is easier than
integrating the density over the volume in case of dependence of the density on
the coordinates. The disadvantage of the classical model is that the majority
of real physical systems are far from this ideal uniformity.
The use of the concept of the relativistic
uniform system is based on the special theory of relativity (STR) and is the
next step towards a more precise description of physical systems. In STR
particular importance is given to invariant physical quantities, which can be
calculated in each inertial reference frame and are equal to the values that
these quantities have in the proper reference frame of the body. For example,
multiplication of the invariant mass by the four-velocity gives the
four-momentum of the body containing the invariant energy, and the
multiplication of the corresponding invariant quantities by the four-velocity
allows us in the case of motion of solid point
particles to find the four-potentials of any vector fields
and to develop their complete theory. ^{[1]} Another example is that
for determination of the four-velocity or four-acceleration
as a rule the operator
of proper-time-derivative is used instead of the time derivative.
Therefore, the use of the invariant mass density and charge density of the
moving particles that make up the system does not only conform to the
principles of STR but also significantly simplifies solution of the
relativistic equations of motion.
Field functions for the bodies of spherical shape
Field equations are most easily solved in case
of spherical symmetry in the absence of general rotation of particles. In this
case all the physical quantities depend only on the current radius, which
starts at the center of the sphere. Below the solutions are provided of the
equations for different fields in the framework of STR, including the scalar
potentials, field strengths and solenoidal vectors. Due to the random motion of
the particles in the system, the vector field potentials become equal to zero.
This leads to zeroing of the solenoidal vectors of fields, including the
magnetic field and the gravitational torsion field.
Acceleration field
The four-potential of the acceleration field includes the
scalar potential and the vector potential . Applying
the four-curl to the four-potential gives the
acceleration tensor . In
the curved spacetime the acceleration field equation with the field sources is
derived from the principle of least action: ^{[1]}
This equation after expressing the acceleration
tensor in terms of the four-potential turns into the
wave equation for finding the four-potential of the acceleration field:
which, taking into account the calibration
condition of the four-potential , can
be transformed as follows:
where is the speed of light, is the acceleration field coefficient, is the mass four-current with the covariant
index, is the metric tensor, is the Ricci tensor, is the four-velocity, is the invariant mass density of the
particles in the comoving reference frames, which is the same for all the
particles.
In Minkowski spacetime within the framework of
STR, the covariant derivatives of the form turn into the partial derivatives of the form
,
while the result of the action of the partial derivatives does not depend on
the order of their action. As a consequence of the calibration of the
4-potential, the equality holds: . As a result, the four-potential of the
acceleration field can be found from the wave equation:
This equation can be divided into two equations
– one for the scalar potential and the other for the vector potential of the
acceleration field. In this system under consideration the vector potential is
equal to zero, and the scalar potential of the acceleration field is given by:
where are the time components of the metric tensor,
is the Lorentz factor of the particles in the
reference frame K' associated with the
center of the sphere.
Since the scalar potential of the stationary
system does not depend on time, the wave equation for the scalar potential
turns into the Poisson equation: ^{[2]}
and the following formula is obtained for the
Lorentz factor of the particles: ^{[3]}
where is the Lorentz factor of the particles at the
center of the sphere, is the current radius.
The acceleration field strength and the
corresponding solenoidal vector are expressed by the formulas:
Pressure field
The four-potential of the pressure field includes the
scalar potential and the vector potential , and obeys the calibration condition:
.
The pressure field equation with the field
sources, the pressure field tensor and the equation for finding the
four-potential of the pressure field have the form: ^{[1]}
where is the pressure field coefficient.
In STR the latter equation turns into the wave
equation:
In the stationary case the potentials do not
depend on time and the time component of the wave equation turns into the
Poisson equation for the scalar potential of the pressure field:
The solution of this equation inside the sphere
with particles is as follows: ^{[3]}
where is the scalar potential at the center of the
sphere. This potential is approximately equal to: ^{[}^{4]}
where the
acceleration field constant and the pressure field constant are expressed by the formulas:
The strength of the pressure field and the
corresponding solenoidal vector are found as follows:
Gravitational field
The
gravitational
four-potential of the gravitational field is made up with
the use of the scalar and vector potentials. The calibration condition of the four-potential
is: .
The gravitational field equation with the field
sources, the gravitational
tensor and the equation for finding the
four-potential of the gravitational field in the covariant theory of gravitation have the
form: ^{[5]} ^{[6]}
where is the gravitational
constant.
In STR the latter equation is simplified and
becomes the wave equation:
From the wave equation in the stationary case,
the Poisson equation follows for the scalar potential inside the sphere with
randomly moving particles in the framework of the Lorentz-invariant theory of
gravitation (LITG):
The right-hand side of this equation contains
the Lorentz factor ,
which depends on the radius according to (1). In addition, the internal scalar
potential near the surface of the sphere must coincide with the scalar
potential of the external field of the system, in view of the standard
potential gauge, that is with equality of the potential to zero at infinity.
As a result, the dependence of the scalar
potential on the current radius differs from the dependence in the classical
case of the uniform sphere with the radius and is equal to it only
approximately: ^{[3]}
For
the gravitational field strength
and the gravitational torsion field inside the
sphere we obtain the following: ^{[7]}
The solutions for the external gravitational
field potential and for the field strength according to LITG are as follows:
Here, the auxiliary mass is equal to the product of the mass density by the volume of the sphere: .
From the expressions for the potential and strength of the external gravitational
field we can see that the role of the gravitational mass is played by the
mass Since then the relation is satisfied.
To
understand the difference between these masses we should calculate the total
relativistic mass of the particles moving inside the sphere.
For the motion of particles there should be some voids between them. Both the
average accelerations and the average velocities of the particles inside the
sphere are functions of the current radius. Dividing the particles’ velocities
by their acceleration, we can find the dependence of the average period of the
oscillatory motion of particles on the radius. Finally, multiplying the
velocity by the average period of motion, we can obtain an estimate of the size
of the voids between the particles.
In
order to calculate the volume of the sphere, it is necessary to sum up the
volumes of all the typical particles moving inside the sphere, as well as the
volumes of the voids between them. Suppose now that the sizes of the typical
particles are much larger than the voids between the particles, and the volume
of the voids is substantially less than the total volume of the particles. In
this case, we can use the approximation of continuous medium, so that the unit
of the mass of matter inside the sphere will be given by the approximate
expression , where is the mass density in the
reference frames associated with the particles, is the Lorentz factor of the moving
particles, the product gives the mass density of the particles from
the viewpoint of an observer, who is stationary with respect to the sphere, and
the volume element inside the sphere corresponds to the volume
of the particle from the viewpoint of this observer. This leads to the fact
that the total volume of the particles moving inside the sphere becomes
approximately equal to the volume of the sphere. For the mass, in view of the
Lorentz factor (1), the following relation is obtained:
This implies the equality of the gravitational
mass and the total relativistic mass of the particles moving inside the sphere.
The both masses are greater than the mass
.
By the method of its calculation, the mass is equal to the sum of the invariant masses
of the particles that make up the system.
The external torsion field is equal to zero:
Electromagnetic field
The electromagnetic four-potential of the electromagnetic field includes the
scalar potential and the vector potential .
The
covariant Lorentz calibration for four-potential is: . For a fixed
uniformly charged spherical body with random motion of charges the total
electromagnetic field on the average is purely electric and the vector
potential is equal to zero.
The electromagnetic field equation with the
field sources, the electromagnetic tensor and the equation for finding the
four-potential are expressed as follows:
where is the electric
constant, is the electromagnetic four-current.
The latter equation in STR turns into the wave
equation:
Due to the absence of time-dependence in the
case under consideration, the wave equation becomes the Poisson equation for
the scalar potential inside the sphere:
where is the charge density in the reference frames
associated with the charges.
The dependence of the scalar potential on the
current radius in the general case differs from the dependence in the classical
case of the potential of a uniformly charged sphere with the radius ,
coinciding with it only in the first approximation: ^{[8]}
The field strength of the electric field and the
magnetic field inside the sphere have the form:
Outside the system under consideration the
charge density is equal to zero and the Poisson equation for the scalar
potential turns into the Laplace equation:
The solution for the external electric field
potential, corresponding to the potential gauge and the Maxwell's equations for
the electric field strength is given by:
The external magnetic field is equal to zero:
In these expressions, the charge is an auxiliary quantity equal to the product
of the charge density by the volume of the sphere: .
In this case, the following quantity serves as
the total charge of the system:
while The charge
is calculated in the same way as the mass and has the meaning of the sum of the charges
of all the system’s particles.
Tensor field invariants
The knowledge of the field strengths and the
solenoidal components of fields allows us to find the tensor components of the
corresponding fields with the covariant indices. To pass on to the field
tensors with the contravariant indices we need to know the metric tensor. In
STR the metric tensor does not depend on the coordinates and time, is uniquely
defined, and in Cartesian coordinates consists of zeros and unities. As a
result, it is easy to find the tensor field invariants , , and ,
where , , and are the acceleration tensor,
the pressure field tensor,
the gravitational tensor and the electromagnetic
tensor, respectively.
The tensor field invariants are included in the
Lagrangian, the Hamiltonian. the action function and the relativistic energy of
the system, and they are located there inside the integrals over the space
volume. In addition, they are included in the corresponding stress-energy
tensors of the fields. ^{[2]}
Since in the system under consideration the solenoidal vectors are zero,
the tensor invariants depend only on the field strengths:
The volume integrals of the tensor invariants
multiplied by the corresponding factors were calculated in the article. ^{[7]} For the acceleration field and the pressure
field the integrals are taken only over the volume of the sphere:
The gravitational and electromagnetic fields of
the system are present not only inside but also outside the sphere, where they
extend to infinity, while the field strengths of the internal and external
fields behave differently. The field strengths
and are substituted respectively into the
integrals of the tensor invariants of these fields taken over the volume of the
sphere, which gives the following:
Into the volume integrals of the tensor
invariants of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the system
outside the sphere the field strengths and are substituted, respectively:
Energies of particles in the field potentials
All the four fields act on the particles inside
the sphere, and therefore each particle of the system acquires the
corresponding energy in a particular field. The energy of the particle in the
field is calculated as the volume integral of the product of the effective mass
density by the corresponding scalar potential, and
for the electric field the energy is determined as the volume integral of the
product of the effective charge density by the scalar potential , where the
Lorentz factor from (1) is used. In STR the energies of
particles in the acceleration field, pressure field, gravitational and electric
fields in the uniform relativistic spherical system, in view of the expressions
for the field potentials ^{[7]} and the corrections to calculations, ^{[8]
[9]} ^{[10] [11]} are, respectively:
It
should be noted that all the fields, which contain particles, are not the fields
arising from the external sources, but are generated by the particles
themselves. As a result, the particles’ energies calculated above in the scalar
potentials of the fields are twice as large as the potential energy of one or
another interaction. For example, in order to calculate the electrostatic
energy of the system of two charges, it is sufficient to take the potential of
the first charge at the location of the second charge and to multiply it by the
value of the second charge. But if we use the formula for the energy in the form of an
integral, then the electrostatic energy will be taken into account twice,
because the term is added, which contains the potential of the second charge at
the location of the first charge multiplied by the value of the first charge. On the
other hand, the electrostatic energy must consist of two components that take
into account both the energy of particles in each other’s fields and the energy
of the electric field itself.
Instead, in electrostatics, the
electrostatic energy is calculated either through the scalar potential or
through the field strength by integrating the time component of the
stress-energy tensor over the volume. Both methods provide the same result, but
the connection between the field energy and the energy of particles in the
potential is lost in this case, and it is not clear why these energies should
coincide.
Relation between the field coefficients
For the four fields under consideration the
equation of motion of matter in the concept of the general field is as follows:
^{[12]} ^{[13]}
where is the mass four-current, is the electromagnetic four-current.
The components of the field tensors are the
field strengths and the corresponding solenoidal vectors, but in the physical
system under consideration the latter are equal to zero. As a result, the space
component of the equation of motion is reduced to the relation:
If we substitute here the expression for the
field strengths inside the sphere, we obtain the relation between the field
coefficients: ^{[14]}
The same is obtained for the time component of
the equation of motion, which leads to the generalized Poynting theorem. ^{[9]}
Relation between the energies of the internal and external
fields
In article ^{[15]} it was found that the
energy of particles in the gravitational field inside the stationary sphere is
up to a sign two times greater than the total energy associated with the tensor
invariants of the gravitational field inside and outside the body. A similar
situation takes place in the system under consideration with the random motion
of particles and zero solenoidal vectors both for the gravitational ^{[10]} and electromagnetic fields. ^{[8]} In particular, we can write the following:
These expressions relate the energy of particles
in the scalar field potentials with the energy found with the help of the field
strengths.
Relativistic energy
In the curved spacetime the system’s energy for
the continuously distributed matter is given by the formula: ^{[2]} ^{[}^{4}^{]}
This formula is valid in the case when we can assume that the potentials
and strengths of the fields at each point of space do not depend on the
velocities of the motion of the individual particles of the system.
In the STR the metric tensor determinant is ,
the time component of the four-velocity is
,
and in order to calculate the energy of the spherical system with particles, taking
into account the fields’ energies, we can use the above-mentioned energies of
particles in the field potentials and the energies in the form of the tensor
invariants of the fields:
The expression for the energy is simplified if we
use the relation between the field coefficients (2):
Taking into account the relations between the
energies of the internal and external fields also simplifies the expression for
the system’s energy:
Relation between the energy and the cosmological constant
In the approach under consideration, the relativistic
energy of the system is not an absolute value and requires gauging. For this
purpose the cosmological constant is used. The gauge condition for the four
main fields is related to the sum of the products of the fields’
four-potentials by the corresponding four-currents and has the following form: ^{[2]}
^{[4}^{]}
where for large cosmic systems , and is the constant of the order of unity.
Within the framework of the STR the gauge
condition has the following form:
If we divide the system’s particles and remove
them to infinity and leave there at rest, the terms with the products of the
vector field potentials by the velocity of particles would vanish, and the Lorentz factor of an
arbitrary particle would be .
On the right-hand side we will have only the sum of the terms specifying the
energy density of the particles located in the potentials of their proper
fields. Since , we see that the cosmological constant for
each system’s particle is up to the multiplier equal to the rest energy density of this
particle with a certain addition from its proper fields. Then the integral over
the volume of all the particles gives a certain energy:
where the gauge mass is related to the gauge condition of the
energy.
In the process of gravitational clustering the particles
that were initially far from each other are united into closely bound systems,
in which the field potentials increase manyfold. In the system under
consideration , the solenoidal vectors of the fields are
considered equal to zero due to the random motion of the particles, which gives
the following:
The expression on the right-hand side is part of
the relativistic energy of the system, so that the energy can be written as
follows:
The mass is related to the relativistic energy of the
generally stationary system and is the inertial mass of the system. In view of
(2), the energy will be equal to:
This shows that the relativistic energy of this
system is equal to the gauge mass-energy
,
from which the gravitational and electromagnetic energy of the fields outside
the system should be subtracted.
Lagrange function and motion integrals
The Lagrange function for a system of particles
and four main vector fields has the following form:^{[1]} ^{[2]}
Here is the scalar curvature. With the help of
such Lagrange function, one can calculate the generalized momentum of the
system:^{[16]}
This vector depends on the vector potentials of
all four fields and is preserved in a closed physical system, that is, it is an
integral of motion. Another integral of motion is the relativistic energy of
the system , which is found by formula (5). Further, it
is assumed that one can neglect the contributions from the gravitational and
electromagnetic fields outside the matter and take into account only the
generalized momentum. Then we can assume that these values form a four-momentum
of the system, written with a covariant index:
The angular momentum of the system is also an
integral of motion:
The antisymmetric angular momentum pseudotensor
is determined through the four-radius , taken with a covariant index, and through
the four-momentum :
The spatial components of the angular momentum
pseudotensor are the components of the angular momentum of the system:
The radius-vector of the center of momentum of a
physical system is determined by the formula:
The time components of the pseudotensor are the components of the three-dimensional
vector , which is often called the time-varying
dynamic mass moment:
If we take into account definition of the
radius-vector of the center of momentum and the relationship between the
momentum and the velocity of the center of the momentum in the form , we get the relationship:
In a closed system the pseudotensor must be conserved, and its components must be
some constants. For the space components of the pseudotensor this results in
conservation of the angular momentum: . From the equality of the pseudotensor’s time
components and the components of the vector it follows that it should be .
Given the expression for , it can be written as , where the constant vector specifies the position of the system’s center
of momentum at .
Thus, in this reference frame we obtain the equation of motion of the center of
momentum at the constant velocity ,
as a property of the motion of a closed system.
The component
of the angular momentum of a uniform ball,
taking into account relativistic corrections, can be calculated by the formula:
^{[17]}
Here is the invariant mass density, is the angular velocity of rotation of the
ball having a radius .
Integral vector
The equation used to find the metric tensor
components in the covariant
theory of gravitation for the tensors with mixed indices has the
following form:^{[2]}
here is the Ricci tensor with mixed indices; is the unit tensor or the Kronecker delta; , , and are the stress-energy tensors of the
acceleration field and pressure field, gravitational and electromagnetic
fields, respectively.
With the help of the covariant derivative we can find the four-divergence of both sides
of the above equation for the metric. The divergence of the left-hand side is
zero due to equality to zero of the divergence of the Einstein tensor, , and also as a consequence of the fact that outside
the body the scalar curvature vanishes, , and inside
the body it is constant. The latter follows from the gauge condition of the
energy of the closed system. The divergence of the right-hand side of equation
for the metric is also zero:
where the tensor
with mixed indices represents the sum of the
stress-energy tensors of all the fields acting in the system.
The resulting expression for the tensors’ space
components is nothing but the differential equation of the matter’s motion
under the action of forces generated by the fields, which is written in a
covariant form. ^{[13] }As for the tensors’ time components, for them
the expression is expression of the generalized Poynting theorem for all the
fields. ^{[9]}
In a weak field and at low velocities of motion
of the particles, the equation can be integrated over the four-volume,
taking into account the divergence theorem. As a result, at the initial moment
of time for the system under consideration, the following relation will be
valid:
In a closed system, the four-dimensional
integral vector must be constant. ^{[16]} For a stationary sphere with randomly moving
particles in the continuous medium approximation, the energy fluxes of the
fields defining the components , where
, are missing , so that the spatial components
are zero, . As for the time component of the integral vector, then for the volume
occupied by the matter inside the sphere, it also vanishes due to relation (4)
for the field coefficients. However, outside the sphere, where there are only
gravitational and electromagnetic fields, the time component of the integral
vector is not equal to zero. As a result, the contribution to this component is
made by the energies of the external fields:
It follows from the above that the integral
vector shows the distribution of energy and energy fluxes in the system under
consideration. For the nonzero space components
of the integral vector to appear some
stationary motion of the matter and fields is required, for example, general
rotation, volume pulsations or mixing of matter. In this case, solenoidal
vectors and the fields’ energy fluxes appear in the system.
Since the integral vector is associated with the energies and energy
fluxes of the fields in the energy-momentum tensors, it differs from the
four-momentum , which includes the invariant mass and proportional
to its rest energy. It turns out that the difference between and is due to the fundamental difference between
particles and fields, they cannot be reduced to each other, although they are
interrelated with each other.
Virial theorem and the kinetic energy of particles
In article ^{[18]} the kinetic energy of
the particles of the system under consideration is estimated by three methods:
from the virial theorem, from the relativistic definition of energy and using
the generalized momenta and the proper fields of the particles. In the limit of
low velocities, all these methods give for the kinetic energy the following:
The possibility to use the generalized momenta to
calculate the energy of the particles’ motion is associated with the fact that
despite zeroing of the vector potentials and the solenoidal vectors on the
large scale, in the volume of each randomly moving particle these potentials
and vectors are not equal to zero. As a result, the energy of motion of the
system’s particles can be found as the half-sum of the scalar products of the
vector field potentials by the particles’ momentum, while for the
electromagnetic field we should take not the momentum, but the product of the
charge by the velocity and the Lorentz factor.
If we square the equation for in (1), we can obtain the dependence of the
squared velocity of the particles’ random motion on the current radius:
On the other hand, we can assume that where denotes the averaged velocity component
directed along the radius, and is the averaged velocity component
perpendicular to the current radius. In addition, from statistical
considerations, it follows that
This implies the dependence of the radial
velocity on the radius:
Next, from the virial theorem we find the squared
velocity of the particles at the center of the sphere:
This makes it possible to estimate the Lorentz
factor in the center:
In the ordinary interpretation of the virial
theorem the time-averaged kinetic energy of the system of particles must be two
times less than the averaged energy associated with the forces holding the particles at the
radius-vectors :
However, in the relativistic uniform system this
equation is changed:
while the quantity exceeds the kinetic energy of particles, , and it becomes equal to it only in the limit
of low velocities.
In contrast to the classical case, the total
time derivative of the virial in the stationary system is other than zero due
to the virial’s dependence on the radius:
An analysis of the integral theorem of
generalized virial makes it possible to find, on the basis of field theory, a
formula for the root-mean-square speed of typical particles of a system without
using the notion of temperature: ^{[19]}
Extreme objects
In formula (2) for the gravitational field strength
outside the
body there is a quantity , where . As was shown in
article, ^{[11]} at the value radians
the gravitational field strength vanishes and
the gravitational acceleration disappears. Therefore, in real physical objects
the following condition must hold: . If the angle is
increased, then the quantity would
first increase, and then would begin to decrease and even change its sign. So,
at we will
have , at we will have , at we will
have .
Let us now consider the observable Universe, which on a
scale 100 Mpc or more can be considered as a relativistic uniform system. The
total mass-energy density of the Universe is close to the critical value kg/m^{3} and
the size of the Universe can be estimated as the Hubble length m, where
is the
Hubble parameter.
Using the approximate equality according
to, ^{[14]} we find the value
radians. Since the
angle is sufficiently large,
then for modeling of the gravitational field of the Universe it is necessary to
use refined formulas with sines and cosines. For example, if we take the size
of the observable Universe equal to , then we will have , and the
gravitational field at the boundaries of the Universe will tend to zero. This is
what we observe in the form of a large-scale cellular structure consisting of
clusters of galaxies. The reason for the gravitation action weakening is
assumed to be graviton scattering by the particles of the space medium. ^{[20]}
Another extreme object is a proton, in which the mass
density in the entire volume changes approximately by 1.5 times. As a result,
in the first approximation a proton is a relativistic uniform system. The
proton radius is of the
order of 0.873 fm, ^{[21]} and the
average density is of the order of kg/m^{3}.
As a gravitational constant at the atomic level the strong gravitational constant should be
used. An estimate of the quantity for a
proton at gives:
radians. This shows
that a proton is an extreme object from the point of view of weakening of its
gravitational field.
In article, ^{[11]} a method
is provided for estimating the Lorentz factor of the matter’s motion at the
center of a proton, which gives . In addition, the radius of
action of the strong
gravitation in the matter with the critical mass
density kg/m^{3} in
the observable Universe is estimated: m. On a
large scale in the Universe not the strong gravitation, but the ordinary
gravitation is acting with the radius of action of the order of the Hubble
length.
Let us suppose that
corresponds to the radius of a certain black hole for the strong gravitation, calculated by the
Schwarzschild formula: . If the mass
is , then for the radius of a black hole with
such mass we obtain m, and the mass is
kg. The Schwarzschild
formula admits a black hole for the strong gravitation at small mass of the
order of the proton mass, large mass density and a radius smaller than the
proton radius. In addition, substitution of the mass and the
radius into the
Schwarzschild formula formally corresponds to a black hole with a large radius
and low density . However, for an external observer,
such a black hole would rather correspond not to a black hole, but to an
object, containing strongly rarefied hydrogen gas of the cosmic space.
Similarly, the Metagalaxy with the radius of order of
and the
mass density is not a black hole,
although it corresponds to the Schwarzschild formula for the ordinary
gravitation. Hence, in accordance with the theory of infinite nesting of
matter, the conclusion follows – at each level of matter the corresponding
gravitation forms only one type of the most compact and stable object. So, at
the level of nucleons a proton appears under the action of the strong gravitation,
and at the level of stars the ordinary gravitation generates a neutron star. If
we multiply the radius of a neutron star by the coefficient of similarity in
size , which is
equal to the ratio of the stellar radius to the proton radius, we will obtain
the radius of the order of m. This radius must correspond
to a compact object of a neutron star-type at the level of metagalaxies, which
can emerge under the action of gravitation at this matter level. In the first
approximation, the gravitational constant for metagalaxies is determined with
the help of the similarity theory: m^{3}•s^{–2}•kg^{–1},
where is the
coefficient of similarity in velocities, is the coefficient of similarity in
mass.
By analogy with the case of a proton, a neutron star
is also considered as a relativistic uniform system. For a star with the mass
of 1.35 Solar masses, the radius km and
the average density kg/m^{3},
at we obtain
the angle radians. With this in
mind, if we substitute into (3) the stellar mass instead of and the
stellar radius instead of , we can
estimate the Lorentz factor at the center of the star: . This allows us to estimate the temperature at
the center of the star: K, which
is close enough to calculation of the temperature at the center of a newly
formed star. ^{[14]}
Thus, the dependences of the gravitational field inside
and outside the bodies in article ^{[11]} are in
good agreement with the conclusions of the Le Sage’s theory of gravitation and the theory of Infinite
Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, with the strong gravitation at the level of nucleons
and with the concept of a dynamic force field in electrogravitational
vacuum.
Cosmological constant and scalar
curvature
According to
(6), outside the body, where the four-currents are equal to zero, the
cosmological constant becomes equal to zero. In addition, the
scalar curvature also becomes equal to zero. ^{[4] }Inside the body the relation holds true, so that in the matter with higher
density both the scalar curvature and the cosmological constant increase. These
quantities can be calculated using (6) as the averaged values for typical
particles of the physical system. For the cosmic space we obtain approximately
the following: m^{-2}, where the average mass density
is kg/m^{3}.
A similar
formula for a proton gives the following: m^{-2}. However, for a
proton in the calculations we should use the strong gravitational constant . In this case, we find: m^{-2}. The obtained value is almost 84
orders of magnitude greater than the value of the cosmological constant for the
cosmic space. The difference between the cosmological constants for the cosmic
space and for a proton is associated with the averaging procedure: the
cosmological constant inside a proton is large, but in the cosmic space the
matter containing protons, neutrons and electrons is very rarefied, the main
place is occupied by the void, so that the cosmological constant averaged over
the entire space becomes a small value. Thus one of the paradoxes of the
general theory of relativity is solved, in which the cosmological constant is
associated with zero vacuum energy and therefore it must be very large, but in
fact the cosmological constant turns out to be a small value.
For the relativistic
uniform system with four fields acting in it, the average value of the cosmological constant in the matter is
constant and can be written as follows:
This expression
can be simplified by using the scalar potential of the gravitational field and the scalar potential of the electric
field on the surface of the body at :
Field energy theorem
In a
relativistic uniform system, the exact values of the strengths and potentials of
all active fields are known. This allows us to check the field energy theorem for such a
system and verify the theorem.^{[22]} This theorem explains, in particular,
why electrostatic energy can be calculated either through the field strength,
included in the electromagnetic field tensor, or in another way, through the
field potential.
The kinetic energy and potential energy of the field are defined as follows:
If we take the entire infinite volume both inside and outside the matter of
the system, then in the framework of the special theory of relativity and in
the absence of magnetic fields, these expressions are simplified:
By virtue of the field energy theorem, the following relation will be
satisfied:
In the general case, the tensor invariant is expressed in terms of the
square of the electric field strength and the square of the magnetic field
induction: . The field energy density is found through
the time component of the energy-momentum tensor: . In electrostatics, when there are no magnetic
fields and ,
the integral over the volume of the tensor invariant becomes proportional to the
integral over the volume of the component
. As a result, electrostatic energy can be
calculated in different ways:
Besides:
Binding energy
With the help of the covariant theory of gravitation the total energy, binding
energy, energy of fields, pressure energy and the potential energy of the
system consisting of particles and four fields is precisely calculated in the
relativistic uniform model. ^{[23]} A noticeable
difference is shown between the obtained results and the relations for simple
systems in classical mechanics, in which the acceleration field and pressure
field are not taken into account or the pressure is considered to be a simple
scalar quantity. In this case the inertial mass of the massive system is less
than the total inertial mass of the system’s parts.
System mass
The article ^{[24]}
shows that the relativistic uniform system with continuous matter distribution
is characterized by five types of mass: the gauge mass is related to the cosmological constant and
represents the mass-energy of the matter’s particles in the four-potentials of
the system’s fields; the inertial mass ;
the auxiliary mass is equal to the product of the particles’ mass
density by the volume of the system; the mass is the sum of the invariant masses (rest
masses) of the system’s particles, which is equal in value to the gravitational
mass . The relation for these masses is as follows:
Solution of 4/3 problem
For the electromagnetic and gravitational fields, the 4/3 problem consists in
inequality of mass-energy extracted from the energy of the field of a body at
rest, and mass-energy resulting from the field momentum of the moving body. If
such a body is a relativistic uniform system of spherical shape, then the
mass-energy associated with electrostatic energy of the system is:
The momentum of electromagnetic field of a moving sphere is calculated
through the Pointing vector. If is the Lorentz factor, and is the velocity of the sphere, then the field
momentum inside and outside the sphere, as well as the total momentum are
equal: ^{[9]}
From here is the mass-energy associated with the field momentum:
For mass-energies, a ratio describing the 4/3 problem is obtained:
If we consider the energy and momentum of the electromagnetic field only
inside the sphere, or only outside the sphere, similar correlations are
obtained for the corresponding mass-energies.
As indicated in the article, ^{[9]}
the mass-energy mismatch is a consequence of the fact that the time
components of the electromagnetic stress-energy tensor and their integrals over
volume do not together form any four-vector. In contrast, the four-momentum of
the system is a four-vector, so that the same inertial mass enters both the
energy and the momentum of the system. On the other hand, the energy and
momentum of the electromagnetic field are included only as components in the
energy and momentum of the entire system under consideration, and therefore
they themselves do not have to form a four-vector.
To calculate a four-momentum of the system, it is necessary to add energy
and momentum of other fields operating in the system to the energy and momentum
of the electromagnetic field. In addition to the electromagnetic field, the
minimum set of fields of the system includes the acceleration field, the
pressure field and the gravitational field, and therefore it is necessary to
take into account their energy and momentum. In this case, inside the sphere,
the sum of the energies of all fields found through tensor invariants and
through the stress-energy tensors is zeroed out. The total energy flow and the
total momentum of the fields inside the sphere are also zero, so that within
the sphere, the 4/3 problem as applied to general field disappears.
The equality to zero of the sum of the energies and the sum of the momenta of
the fields inside the sphere with randomly moving particles is a consequence of
the fact that the particles and fields have the opportunity to exchange energy
and momentum with each other. As a result, contribution to the relativistic
energy of the system is made only by the particle energies in the scalar
potentials of the fields, and the energies of the electromagnetic and
gravitational fields outside the sphere.
The 4/3 problem shows in particular why the energy and momentum of an
electron and any other body cannot be reduced only to the action of its own
electromagnetic field. Despite the fact that an electron has a maximum charge
per unit mass and is extremely charged, there are other fields in the
electron's matter, for example strong gravitation. These
fields have their own energy and momentum, which contribute to the
four-momentum of the electron.
Relations between field
potentials
In the
article, ^{[25]} a connection was found between the scalar potentials
of the acceleration field and the pressure field in the relativistic uniform
system:
In addition,
a relativistic expression for pressure was found:
where is the mass density of moving matter, is the speed of light, is the Lorentz factor. In the limit of low
velocities, this relationship turns into the standard formula of the kinetic
theory of gases.
Metric inside and outside the system
The standard
expression for the square of the interval between two close points in metric
theories is the following:
For the
static metric with the spherical coordinates there are four nonzero components of the metric tensor: and As a result, there is
As it was
found for the components of the metric inside a spherical body within the
framework of the relativistic uniform model, ^{[26]} and
where is the gravitational constant; is the coefficient to be determined; is the radial coordinate; is the speed of light; is the
invariant mass density of matter particles, moving inside the body; is the Lorentz factor of particles moving at the center of body; is the gravitational potential at the surface of sphere with radius and gravitational mass ; quantities and are auxiliary values; is the invariant charge density of matter particles, moving inside
the body; is the electric scalar potential at the surface of sphere with total
charge ; is the potential of pressure field at the center of body.
On the
surface of the body, with , the component of the metric tensor inside the body must be equal to the component of the metric tensor outside the body. This allows us to refine the
expression for the metric tensor components outside the body:
where is the gravitational potential outside the body; is the electric potential outside the body.
References
See also
External links
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