**Gravitational constant**

The **gravitational constant ** is a fundamental physical constant, a
gravitational interaction constant.

The gravitational
constant *G* is a key quantity in Newton's law of
universal gravitation.

**Contents**

- 1 Introduction
- 2 The history of measurement
- 3 Theoretical definition
- 4 References
- 5 See also
- 6 External links

**Introduction**

According to
the Newton's law of universal gravitation, the force of gravitational
attraction between two material points with gravitational masses *m*_{1} and *m*_{2}, which are located at the
distance *R*, is equal to:

The
proportionality coefficient *G*
in this equation is called the **gravitational
constant**. Numerically it is equal to the absolute value of the
gravitational force, acting on a point body with unit mass from another similar
body, which is located at the unit distance.

In SI units
the value recommended for the year 2014 is: ^{[1]} m^{3}·s^{−2}·kg^{ −1},
or N·м^{2}· kg^{ −2}.

The
gravitational constant is presented in most of the formulas associated with the
gravitational interaction. In particular, it is included in the equations of
the general relativity, the __gravitoelectromagnetism__
and the __covariant theory of gravitation__,
and it is also part of the formulas used to determine the __gravitational torsion
field__. The gravitational constant and its __coupling
constant__ have such values that the gravitational
interaction between the elementary particles is many orders of magnitude less
than the weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions.

In the
theory of __Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter__,
based on the __SPФ
symmetry__ the existence of __strong gravitation__
is assumed, which is acting on the level of elementary particles. The __strong
gravitational constant__ is derived from the ordinary
gravitational constant by multiplying it by the similarity coefficients, which
are found on the basis of __similarity of matter levels__.

**The history of measurement**

The
gravitational constant is used in the modern law of universal gravitation, but
it was not used in Newton’s works and in the works of other scientists until
the beginning of the 19^{ th }century. The gravitational constant
apparently was first introduced into the law of universal gravitation only
after transition to the single metric system of measurements. Possibly it was first
done by the French physicist Poisson in “Treatise on Mechanics” (1809) — at
least historians have not found any earlier works, in which the gravitational
constant was mentioned. In 1798 Henry Cavendish prepared and performed the
Cavendish experiment to determine the average density of the Earth using the
torsion balance, invented by John Michell (Philosophical Transactions 1798).
Cavendish compared the pendular oscillations of the test body under the action
of gravitation of the balls with known mass and under the action of the Earth's
gravitation. The numerical value of the gravitational constant was calculated
later based on the average density of the Earth and resulted in the value m^{3}·s^{−2}·kg^{
−1}. ^{[2]}

The accuracy
of the measured value of *G*
since the time of Cavendish’s experiment increased insignificantly.

**Theoretical definition**

In order to
calculate the gravitational constant Maurizio Michelini used the idea of
micro-quanta, filling the entire space, interacting with the bodies’ particles
and as a result pushing the bodies to each other. ^{[3]} For the matter consisting mainly of nucleons
he obtains the following:

where J/m^{3} is the energy density of the fluxes of
micro-quanta; is the nucleon mass; is the speed of light; m^{−2}•s^{−1} is the fluence rate of the fluxes of
micro-quanta in one direction.

Sergey Fedosin
expressed the gravitational constant in the framework of Le Sage’s theory of
gravitation in terms of the parameters describing the vacuum field of
gravitons. ^{[4]} ^{[5]} ^{[6]} In the model of cubic distribution of
graviton fluxes:

Here is the momentum of gravitons interacting
with the nucleon matter; the fluence rate denotes the number of gravitons dN, that
during the time dt fell to the area
dA (perpendicular to the flux) of one
face of a certain cube, which limits the volume under consideration; m^{2} is the cross-section of
interaction of gravitons and nucleons; is the nucleon mass; J/m^{3}
is the energy density of the graviton fluxes for cubic distribution.

In the model
of spherical distribution of graviton fluxes:

where the
fluence rate denotes the number of gravitons dN, that
during the time dt fell from the unit
solid angle
inside the spherical surface dA; J/m^{3}
is the energy density of the graviton fluxes for spherical distribution.

Since the
gravitational constant is expressed in terms of other variables, it is a
dynamic variable, which is constant only on the average.

**References**

- Newtonian constant of gravitation G.
CODATA, NIST.
- Brush, Stephen G.; Holton,
Gerald James (2001), Physics, the human adventure: from Copernicus to Einstein
and beyond, New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, p. 137, ISBN
0-8135-2908-5.
- Maurizio Michelini.
Discussion on Fundamental Problems of Physics Hidden in Cosmology. Applied
Physics Research. Vol. 8, No. 5. pp.19-43 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v8n5p19.
- Fedosin S.G. The graviton field as the source of mass and
gravitational force in the modernized Le Sage’s model.
Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130, Vol. 8, Issue 4,
P. 1-18 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/PSIJ/2015/22197.
- Fedosin S.G. The Force Vacuum Field as an Alternative to the Ether
and Quantum Vacuum. WSEAS Transactions on Applied and
Theoretical Mechanics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1991-8747 / 2224-3429, Volume 10,
2015, Art. #3, pp. 31-38.
- Fedosin S.G. The charged component of the vacuum field as the source
of electric force in the modernized Le Sage’s model.
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 3, P. 971-1020
(2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v8i3.18.

**See also**

__Strong gravitational constant____Vacuum constants____Selfconsistent gravitational constants____Coupling constant__

**External links**

Source: http://sergf.ru/gpoen.htm