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Strong gravitation
Strong gravitation is fundamental gravitational interaction at the level
of elementary particles, one of the components of the strong interaction in
physics according to the gravitational model of strong interaction. It is assumed that strong gravitation
and electromagnetic forces are responsible for the formation
and integrity of the matter of elementary particles and atomic nuclei, and also
participates in the interactions between electrons and nuclei in atoms
and molecules. For
describing of strong gravitation equations of Lorentzinvariant theory of
gravitation are used.
Contents

History
After the discovery of the
electron in 1897, of the proton in 1919, and of the neutron in 1932, and of
their compositions in the form of atomic nuclei, atoms and molecules, it became
necessary to describe the forces acting between the particles and binding their
matter. In most cases, the behavior of the electron and proton, placed in the
external electromagnetic field, is satisfactorily described by electromagnetic
forces. This led to the standard electromagnetic model of the atom. As for the
interaction of nucleons in atomic nuclei, the hypothesis of the Japanese
physicist H. Yukawa was initially accepted about the binding between the
particles by means of mesons, mostly of pions. Then, in the framework of the
quark theory all hadrons began to be considered to be composed of quarks.
However the idea, that the
fundamental interaction between a set of elementary particles must occur due to
the action of another set of elementary particles, belongs to the atomistic
theory, but it contradicts the Theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter.
Indeed, the reactions between elementary particles follow the laws of
conservation of energy, momentum and electric charge; the matter,
energymomentum and the charge of one type of particles transforms into the
corresponding quantities of other particles, but this does not mean that the
carrier and the cause of the interactions are the elementary particles
themselves. The interaction of nucleons with each other by means of pions
hardly agrees with quarks and gluons, which are used to describe the integrity
of hadrons, due to the problem of nonobservability
of quarks in the free state and the uncertainty of transformation of the forces
between the quarks inside each of the nucleons into the strong interaction
between different nucleons in the atomic nucleus. The introduction of virtual
particles with their exotic properties (short lifetime, the simultaneous
generation of particles and antiparticles, etc.) does not save the situation.
Thus, the abstract explanation of the electromagnetic interaction of two
charges with the help of virtual photons as the field quanta still remains the
statement which is not supported by the concrete model of the interaction
process.
Among the attempts to explain the
strong interaction in connection with gravitation there is a hypothesis that in
the model of hadronic bags the hadrons are de Sitter microuniverses,
in which quarks are enclosed. The radius of hadrons corresponding to the radii
of these microuniverses, is associated with the
strong gravitational constant and the corresponding cosmological constant.^{[}^{1]} To explain the
properties of hadrons in the assumption of strong gravitational interaction the
analogies between hadrons and Kerr — Newman black holes are described. ^{[2]} ^{[3]} ^{[4]}
^{[5]}
In 1999 Sergey Fedosin, based on
the similarity of matter levels,
SPФ symmetry and Le Sage's
theory of gravitation, according to which black holes are not admitted,
postulated the existence of strong gravitation as the fundamental force at the
atomic level and found the value of strong
gravitational constant m^{3}•s^{–2}•kg^{–1}. ^{[6]}
Applications
Hadrons
The equality between the rest
energy of the proton and its total energy, which due to the virial theorem is
approximately equal to the half of the potential energy of the strong
gravitational field, allows us to estimate the radius of the proton
:
m,
here is
the proton mass, is
the speed of light, is the
coefficient depending on the distribution of matter, in the case of the uniform
matter density of the proton . According to the selfconsistent model ^{[7]} ^{[}^{8}^{]} for the proton .
The obtained value coincides with the experimentally obtained
sizes of the proton and the neutron, ^{[}^{9}^{]} confirming the validity of the idea of strong gravitation. At the same
time the given equality implies the explanation of the essence of the rest
energy of bodies as the energy associated with the strong gravitation of the
nucleons of the bodies’ matter. According to the mass–energy equivalence, the
rest energy of the nucleon is proportional to its mass. On the other hand, the
total energy of the nucleon includes the energy of the strong gravitational
field which is proportional to the squared mass, and the internal energy of the
nucleon matter which is proportional to the matter mass in the expression for
the kinetic energy. As a result, the total energy is proportional only to the
mass just as well as the rest energy.
On the comparison of the maximum
angular momentum of the strong gravitational field and the angular momentum of
the proton with the uniform matter distribution another estimate of the proton
radius is based: ^{[}^{10}^{]}
m.
As the model of emerging of
strong gravitation the modernized Le Sage's theory of gravitation is used, which becomes universal taking into account the Theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter.
^{[1}^{1}^{]}^{ }^{[}^{1}^{2}^{]}
At the stellar scale level of matter the analogues
of nucleons are neutron stars, the integrity of which is maintained by the
ordinary force of gravitation and the pressure force in the matter arising from
the repulsion of the nucleons from each other. Similarly, in the matter of
nucleons the compensation of the strong gravitation and the internal pressure
force takes place (see the substantial
neutron model and the substantial
proton model). In this picture, for the stability of nucleons and
describing their properties quarks are not required, in contrast to the
standard quantum chromodynamics. At the same time in the model of quark quasiparticles the
quarks are seen not as real particles inside hadrons but as quasiparticles, the
constituent elements of the hadrons’ matter which
carry the mass, charge and magnetic moment. This ensures the observed symmetry
of hadron properties. In turn, the quarks themselves can be reduced to the
combinations of two hadronic phases of the matter. ^{[1}^{3}^{]} The analysis of the Regge hadron
families also shows that they can be explained by taking into account the
quantization of the spin and the matter state of the
particles, retained by the strong gravitational field.
Electron
Strong gravitation significantly
affects the construction of the model of the electron, leading to the substantial model of this particle.
In particular, the electron charge is so large, that strong gravitation is not
able to keep the electron matter from the
Coulomb electric force of repulsion of the charges. Therefore, the stability of
the electron in the atom is possible only in the form of a scattered electron
cloud (disc) and due to the forces of attraction to the nucleus from strong
gravitation and the nuclear charge. Another fact, the quantization of energy
levels and of the orbital angular momentum of the electron in the atom, is
explained based on the condition that the flux of kinetic energy of the motion
of electron matter around the nucleus is equal to the sum of
the energy fluxes from the strong gravitation and the electromagnetic field. ^{[1}^{3}^{]} This leads to the stationary states of
the electron in the atom, in which it does not produce emission. For the
hydrogen atom it is also found that the magnetic energy of the nucleus in the
magnetic field of the electron equals the energy of the nucleus’ spin in the torsion field of strong gravitation
of the electron in case of limiting rotation of the nucleus. ^{[7]}
The interaction of nucleons in the atomic nucleus
The experiments with the
scattering of nucleons on each other allow us to estimate the effective
potential of strong interaction acting between these particles. ^{[1}^{4}^{]} As the distance decreases the interaction
force increases rapidly. To describe this force the gravitational model of strong interaction is used, in which the nuclear forces are
the sum of the attraction from the strong gravitation, the repulsion of the
nucleon spins due to the torsion field of strong gravitation, as well as from
the action of electromagnetic forces. At short distances, the repulsive force
of the spins dominates, which is inversely proportional to the fourth and then
the fifth degree of the distance. At large distances, there is attraction of
the nucleons, mainly from the strong gravitation. At distances close to the
radius of the nucleon, the neutron and the proton are in the equilibrium state,
which gives the deuteron as the simplest atomic nucleus with two nucleons. ^{[1}^{3}^{]} Taking into account the strong
gravitation allows us to construct the model of simplest nuclei and their
geometric configuration, as well as to explain the dependence of the specific
binding energy of atomic nuclei on their atomic number due to the saturation
effect of the strong gravitational energy and the increase of the electrical
repulsive energy of protons.
Strange particles
In quantum chromodynamics, it is
assumed that the long lifetime, inherent in some hadrons, is due to the
presence of strange quarks in them. However, the models of strange particles
can be constructed similarly to the models of atomic nuclei, by connecting
nucleons and mesons under the influence of strong gravitation. ^{[7]} The composition of some strange hadrons is
described in the model of quark
quasiparticles.
Interatomic interaction
The interaction of atoms leads to
the formation of molecules, as well as simple and molecular substances. In contrast
to the nucleons in atomic nuclei, in the interaction of atoms the strong
gravitation acts between the nuclei of all atoms as well as between the
electrons, complementing the electromagnetic forces. In this
case the electron discs, surrounding the atomic nuclei, due to the rapid
rotation in them of the matter,
which is charged and oriented by the magnetic field, have the possibility to
shield the gravitational forces between the nuclei, reducing them to the level
of electrical forces. The equilibrium of atoms in molecules and in
substances is achieved in case of the balance of gravitational and
electromagnetic forces. With increasing of the distance between the atoms, the
socalled Van der Waals force occurs between them in
the form of the attraction rapidly decreasing with the distance. The estimate
with the help of the Le Sage's theory of gravitation gives the radius of action
of strong gravitation in the matter with the
density of the order of Earth's density, about 0.7 m. ^{[1}^{3}^{]}
References
1.
Salam, A., and Strathdee, J. Confinement Through Tensor Gauge Fields. Physical Review D, 1978,
Vol.18, Issue 12, P. 45964609.
2.
Sivaram, C. and Sinha, K.P. Strong gravity, black holes,
and hadrons. Physical Review D, 1977, Vol. 16, Issue 6, P. 19751978.
3.
Recami, E. and Castorina, P. On Quark Confinement:
Hadrons as «Strong Black Holes». Letters Nuovo Cimento, 1976, Vol. 15, No 10, P. 347350.
4.
Pavsic, M. (1978). Unified Theory Of Strong And Gravitational Interactions. Nuovo Cimento B, Vol. 48, P.
205253.
5.
Oldershaw R. L. Hadrons as
KerrNewman Black Holes. arXiv:astroph/0701006v4,
30 Dec 2006.
6.
Fedosin S.G. Fizika
i filosofiia podobiia ot preonov
do metagalaktik, Perm, pages 544, 1999. ISBN
5813100121.
7.
^{7.0} ^{7.1} ^{7.2} Comments to the book: Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, ISBN 9785990195110. (in Russian).
8. Fedosin S.G. The radius of the proton in the selfconsistent model. Hadronic Journal, 2012, Vol. 35, No. 4, P. 349 – 363.
9.
Hofstadter, Robert, The
electronscattering method and its application to the structure of nuclei and
nucleons, Nobel Lecture (December 11, 1961).
10.
Fedosin S.G. Sovremennye
problemy fiziki: v poiskakh novykh printsipov, Editorial URSS, Moskva
(2002).
11. Fedosin S.G. Model of Gravitational Interaction in
the Concept of Gravitons. Journal of Vectorial
Relativity, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2009, P.1–24.
12.
Fedosin S.G. The graviton field as the source of mass
and gravitational force in the modernized Le Sage’s model. Physical Science International Journal, ISSN:
23480130, Vol. 8, Issue 4, P. 118 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/PSIJ/2015/22197.
13.
^{11.0} ^{11.1} ^{11.2} ^{11.3} Sergey Fedosin, The physical theories and infinite hierarchical nesting of
matter, Volume 1, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing,
pages: 580, ISBN13: 9783659573019.
14.
Ishii N., Aoki S., Hatsuda
T. The Nuclear Force from
Lattice QCD. – arXiv: nuclth / 0611096 v1, 28 Nov 2006.
See also
 Infinite
Hierarchical Nesting of Matter
 Similarity
of matter levels
 SPФ
symmetry
 Quantization
of parameters of cosmic systems
 Hydrogen
system
 Strong
gravitational constant
 Strong
interaction
 Gravitational
torsion field
 Gravitational model of strong interaction
 Model
of quark quasiparticles
 Substantial
electron model
 Substantial
neutron model
 Substantial
proton model
External links


Source:
http://sergf.ru/stgen.htm