# На русском языке

# Operator of proper-time-derivative

**Operator
of proper-time-derivative** is a differential operator and the relativistic generalization of material
derivative (substantial derivative) in four-dimensional spacetime.

In coordinate notation, this
operator is written as follows: ^{[1]}

where –
the symbol of differential in curved spacetime, –
proper time, which is measured by a clock moving with test particle, – 4-velocity of test particle or local volume of matter, –
covariant derivative.

In flat Minkowski spacetime
operator of proper-time-derivative is simplified, since the covariant
derivative transforms into 4-gradient (the operator of differentiation with
partial derivatives with
respect to
coordinates):

To prove this expression it can
be applied to an arbitrary 4-vector :

Above was used material
derivative in operator equation for an arbitrary function :

where is
the velocity of local
volume of matter, – nabla
operator.

In turn, the material derivative
follows from the representation of differential function of spatial coordinates and time:

## Contents

- 1 Applications
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 External links

## Applications

Operator of
proper-time-derivative is applied to different four-dimensional objects – to
scalar functions, 4-vectors and 4-tensors. One exception is 4-position
(4-radius), which in four-Cartesian coordinates has the form because 4-position is not a 4-vector in
curved space-time, but its differential (displacement) is. Effect of the left side of operator of
proper-time-derivative on the 4-position specifies the 4-velocity: , but the right side of the operator does not
so: .

In the covariant theory of gravitation
operator of proper-time-derivative is used to determine the density of 4-force in curved spacetime: ^{[2]}

where is 4-vector momentum density of matter, –
density of matter in its rest system, – Christoffel symbol.

In general relativity freely
falling body in a gravitational field moves along a geodesic, and
4-acceleration of body in this case is equal to zero:^{ [}^{3}^{]}

.

Since interval , then equation of motion of the body
along a geodesic in general relativity can be rewritten in equivalent form:

If, instead of the proper time to
use a parameter , and equation of a curve set by the
expression , then there is the operator of derivative
on the parameter along the curve: ^{[4]}

.

## See also

- Four-gradient
- Four-force

## References

- Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’
materii. – Perm, 2009-2011, 858 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 293.
ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).
- Fedosin
S.G. The General Theory of Relativity, Metric Theory of
Relativity and Covariant Theory of Gravitation: Axiomatization and
Critical Analysis. International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics
(IJTAP), ISSN: 2250-0634, Vol. 4, No. I (2014), pp. 9 – 26.
- Fock, V. A. (1964). "The Theory of Space,
Time and Gravitation". Macmillan.
- Carroll, Sean M. (2004),
*Spacetime and Geometry*, Addison Wesley, ISBN 0-8053-8732-3

## External links

Source:
http://sergf.ru/oden.htm