The acceleration
tensor is an antisymmetric tensor describing the 4-acceleration of particles
and consisting of six components. Tensor components are at the same time
components of the two three-dimensional vectors – acceleration field strength
and the solenoidal acceleration vector. With the acceleration tensor the
acceleration stress-energy tensor, the acceleration field equations and the four-force density in matter are defined. Acceleration
field in matter is
a component of general field.
Expression for the acceleration
tensor can be found in papers by Sergey Fedosin, ^{[1]}
where the tensor is defined using 4-curl:
Here the acceleration
4-potential is
given by:
where is
the scalar potential, is
the vector potential of acceleration field, –
speed of light.
The acceleration field strength
and the solenoidal acceleration vector are found with the help of (1):
and in the second expression three numbers are composed of non-recurring sets
1,2,3; or 2,1,3;
or 3,2,1 etc.
In vector notation can be
written:
The acceleration tensor consists
of the components of these vectors:
The transition to the
acceleration tensor with contravariant indices is carried out by multiplying by
double metric tensor:
In the special relativity, this tensor
has the form:
For the vectors, related to the specific point
particle, we can write:
where , is the velocity of the particle.
To transform the components of the
acceleration tensor from one inertial system to another we must take into
account the transformation rule for tensors. If the reference frame K'
moves with an arbitrary constant velocity with respect to the fixed reference system K,
and the axes of the coordinate systems parallel to each other, the acceleration
field strength and the solenoidal acceleration vector are transformed as
follows:
Through the acceleration tensor
the equations of acceleration field are written:
where is the mass 4-current, is
the mass density in comoving reference frame, is
the 4-velocity, is a constant determined in each task.
Instead of (2) it is possible use
the expression:
Equation (2) is satisfied
identically, which is proved by substituting into it the definition for the
acceleration tensor according to (1). If in (2) we insert tensor components , this leads to two vector equations:
According to (5), the solenoidal
acceleration vector has no sources as its divergence vanishes. From (4) follows
that the time variation of the solenoidal acceleration vector leads to a curl
of the acceleration field strength.
Equation (3) relates the
acceleration field to its source in the form of mass 4-current. In Minkowski
space of special relativity the form of the equation is simplified and becomes:
where is
the density of moving mass, is
the density of mass current.
According to the first of these
equations, the acceleration field strength is generated by the mass density,
and according to the second equation the mass current or change in time of the
acceleration field strength generate the circular field of the solenoidal
acceleration vector.
From (3) and (1) can be obtained
continuity equation:
This equation means that thanks to the curvature of space-time when the
Ricci tensor is non-zero, the acceleration tensor is
a possible source of divergence of mass 4-current. If space-time is flat, as in
Minkowski space, the left side of the equation is set to zero, the covariant
derivative becomes the 4-gradient and remains the following:
Total Lagrangian for the matter
in gravitational and electromagnetic fields includes the acceleration tensor
and is contained in the action function: ^{[1]}
where is
Lagrangian, is
differential of coordinate time, is
a certain coefficient, is
the scalar curvature, is
the cosmological constant, which is a function of the system, is
the speed of light as a measure of the propagation speed of electromagnetic and
gravitational interactions, is
the gravitational four-potential, is the gravitational constant, is
the gravitational tensor, is the electromagnetic
4-potential, is
the electromagnetic 4-current, is
vacuum permittivity, is
the electromagnetic tensor, is
the 4-potential of acceleration field, and are some constants, is
the acceleration tensor, is
the 4-potential of pressure field, is
pressure field tensor, is the
invariant 4-volume, is
the square root of the determinant of
metric tensor, taken with a negative sign, is
the product of differentials of the spatial coordinates.
The variation of the action
function by 4-coordinates leads to the equation of motion of the matter unit in
gravitational and electromagnetic fields and pressure
field:
where is
the 4-acceleration with the covariant index, the operator of proper-time-derivative with
respect to proper time is
used, the first term on the right is the gravitational force density, expressed
with the help of the gravitational field tensor, second term is the Lorentz
electromagnetic force density for the charge density measured in the comoving reference frame, and
the last term sets the pressure force density, and the relation is here:
In special relativity, this relation
is simplified and can be written in the form of two expressions:
where
If we vary the action function by
the acceleration 4-potential, we obtain the equation of acceleration field (3).
With the help of acceleration
tensor in the covariant theory of
gravitation the acceleration
stress-energy tensor is constructed:
.
The covariant derivative of the
acceleration stress-energy tensor determines the four-force density:
The covariant 4-vector of generalized velocity is given by:
With regard to the generalized 4-velocity, the Hamiltonian contains the
acceleration tensor and has the form:
Where and are the time components of the 4-vectors and .
In the reference frame that is fixed relative to the system's center of
mass, Hamiltonian will
determine the invariant energy of the
system.
Studying Lorentz covariance of
4-force, Friedman and Scarr found not full covariance
expressions for 4-force in the form ^{[2]}
This led them to conclude that
the 4-acceleration must be expressed with the help of some antisymmetric
tensor :
Based on the analysis of
different types of motion, they rated their required values of the components
of the acceleration tensor, thereby giving this tensor indirect definition.
From a comparison with (6)
implies that the tensor up
to a sign and a constant factor coincides with the acceleration tensor
Mashhoon and Muench
considered transformation of inertial reference systems, related to accelerated
frame of reference, and came to the relation: ^{[3]}
Tensor has the same properties as the acceleration
tensor
Other theories
In the articles ^{[4]} ^{[5]} ^{[6]} devoted to the modified Newtonian dynamics
(MOND), in the tensor-vector-scalar gravity appear scalar function or , that defines a scalar field, and 4-vector or , and 4-tensor or
The analysis of these values in the corresponding Lagrangian
demonstrates that scalar function or correspond to scalar potential of the acceleration field; 4-vector or
correspond to 4-potential of the acceleration field; 4-tensor or correspond to acceleration tensor .
As it is known, the acceleration field is not
intended to explain the accelerated motion, but for its accurate description.
In this case, it can be assumed that the tensor-vector-scalar theories cannot
pretend to explain the rotation curves of galaxies. At best, they can only
serve to describe the motion, for example to describe the rotation of stars in
galaxies and the rotation of galaxies in clusters of galaxies.
Source:
http://sergf.ru/aten.htm