Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation (LITG) is one of the alternatives to general relativity in weak field approximation. The reason for its appearance was at first the absence of Lorentz covariance in Newton's law of universal gravitation. Subsequent development of LITG was stimulated by the presence of problems existing in general relativity (GR). Although general relativity is considered the most developed theory of gravitation, it has difficulty explaining the fundamental nature of the fact of noninvariance of gravitational field energy. In classical general relativity there are problems describing the spin-orbit interaction, the uniqueness of some results and their consistency, impossibility of constructing a quantum field model in a canonical way. LITG has the same theoretical level as the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell. This follows from the similarity of the basic equations of these theories, descriptions of field with the two potentials and two strengths, the same degree of covariance under coordinate transformations between two frames of reference (see also Maxwell-like gravitational equations). LITG is the limit of covariant theory of gravitation, when it is possible neglect the influence of gravitational field on propagation of wave quanta and results of spacetime measurements. Gravitational field is considered at the same time as one of the components of general field.
In one of his fundamental works  Maxwell in 1865 suggested that gravitation could be described by equations similar to equations of electromagnetism. However, Maxwell used gravitational equations on the basis of mechanical analogies and he could not understand the reason for the negativity of static gravitational field energy and flux of gravitational energy, and therefore did not pursue further the theory in this direction. Just as Weber modified Coulomb's law for electric charges, so in 1870 Holzmüller  and then Tisserand  changed Newton's law, introducing the expression for the gravitational force term depending on the relative velocity of two attracting particles. A discussion of these innovations in the expression for the force can be found in some works.  
Apparently, one of the first scientists who described mathematically perfect analogy between the electromagnetic and gravitational theories, was Oliver Heaviside. Taking into account the coefficients used in accordance with their system of physical units in his writings in 1893   Heaviside gave correct expression for the curl of gravitational quantity, similar in the sense to the magnetic field in electrodynamics. This quantity now determines the gravitational torsion field and is often referred to simply torsion, and in gravitoelectromagnetism, if we consider it a part of general relativity in the limit of small field is gravitomagnetic field strength.
Heaviside also introduced the vector of energy flux density of gravitational field and defined the two components that make up the total energy density of gravitational field, and then comes to the expression for curl of gravitational field strength, connecting it with the speed of change of torsion field. In second part of his work  Heaviside applies his results to estimate the total force between the Earth and the Sun, which includes the component of force arising from the action of the Sun orbital torsion field on moving in its orbit the Earth (if we consider only two gravitationally bound bodies, each of them revolves around a common center of mass of the system on their own orbits.) On the basis of possible disturbances in the Earth moving by the force of Sun torsion, it concludes that the speed of gravity must be large, about the speed of light. The fact that Heaviside came to LITG equations no surprise, since he has given a modern form to Maxwell's equations in four-vector differential equations (previously there were used 20 equations with 12 unknown quantities).
In 1905, Poincaré in his article "On the dynamics of electron»  asserts the need for Lorentz covariance of gravitational force as a consequence of expansion of principle of relativity not only for electromagnetic but also gravitational effects directly in the inertial reference systems. This approach corresponds to the essence of relativity principle of special relativity. Then Poincare considers parallel motion of two bodies, fixed relative to each other in a frame of reference. Based on the transformation of Lorentz group Poincaré describes a number of invariants preserved under transformations, and discusses their possible significance. In the Lorentz transformation the speed of light is presented as a result of the procedure of space-time measurements using electromagnetic waves. This fact could induce Poincare to admit in the article that the speed of gravity will equal the speed of light. Perhaps this would not have happened if the Poincare considered the theory of relativity is not based on electromagnetic but gravitational waves with their corresponding speed.
In papers of Poincare and Heaviside turns out that the total force of gravitation has two components, one of which is proportional to the vector distance to the attracting body, and the second component is associated with the components of velocity vector of the body, taken at the time when gravitational wave leaves the body. The second component of the force, as noted by Poincare, behaves like a magnetic force in electrodynamics. A detailed calculation of similar situation for two bodies was made in the book  as an illustration of LITG to describe the motion of bodies. Derivation of Poincare about the origin of second component of force fully confirmed, because without it are broken Lorentz covariance and well-known result of special theory of relativity (STR) about time dilation in moving bodies (the change of force is accompanied by a change in the length of unit time, given the fact that the force between objects in each frame is defined as a change in momentum of the body per unit time). The importance of Poincare contribution to the theory of gravitation is underlined in the article.  Richard Gans in his work  also comes to equations of gravitation, like Maxwell's equations.
In 1908-1909 Minkowski published two papers on the Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation.   For speed of gravity Minkowski takes a value equal to the speed of light, and uses the same transformation of force as for Lorentz force in electrodynamics.
The article of Sommerfeld  has clarified several issues in LITG. Sommerfeld, in particular, transcribed results of Poincare and Minkowski in 4-vector formalism, and show their similarities and differences. In 1910, there was also the paper of Lorenz.  The purpose of all of the above works was primarily a representation of a modified Newton's law in its Lorentz invariant form. 
In 1922 Felix Kottler  displays a number of relations LITG in terms of vector and tensor algebra, gives full expression for gravitational force and gravitational 4-potential.
Unfortunately, these works have not been considered sufficiently important, because it was thought that the results of LITG can be deduced from general relativity in the weak field limit. In this case, it seems LITG is some intermediate stage in the development of theory of gravitation. Besides, LITG could not independently explain the shift of perihelion of Mercury and other consequences of general relativity without using the idea of space curvature and dependence of metric tensor on coordinates and time.  A typical example is a paper of J. J. Rawal and J. V. Narlikar,  in which considerations of Lorentz covariance gives the wave equation of LITG for gravitational potential and the result is applied to the analysis of planetary motion and gravitational redshift.
The idea that GR is probably not complete and not sufficient to explain the full range of gravitational phenomena, was possibly absent at that time (see below unclear questions in general relativity).
Among the works devoted to the development of LITG and retardation of gravitation in Newton's law, we can mention the article Whitrow and Morduch in 1960,  article of J. North,  articles of Kustaanheimo P., Nuotio V. S.,  , and the article Coster, H. G. L. and J. R. Shepanski. 
J. Carstoiu introduced gravitational equations as Maxwell-like equations. 
In paper  are discussed empirically equivalent theory of gravitation – standard general relativity, Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation, gravitational gauge theories such as Lorentz's theory. Elements of theory LITG and some consequences described in the book,  as well as in the articles.        The theory of informatons by Antoine Acke results in gravitational equations of LITG.  The LITG equations are also presented in the articles.   
In his studies professor at the University of West Virginia Oleg D. Jefimenko, as well as Heaviside and Poincare, considers a generalization of Newton's law of universal gravitation, by introducing in the theory of second component of gravitational field. This allows LITG satisfy the principle of causality and makes it possible to describe the time-dependent gravitational interactions.   
Full version of LITG was published also by Sergey G. Fedosin, physicist and philosopher of Perm , in 1999. LITG was built anew and independently from their predecessors, whose works are seldom cited, and were therefore out of sight.
In analyzing the fundamentals and results of general relativity, which is considered the modern theory of gravitation, may be found the following points that require explanation or serious scientific substantiation:
The above features of general relativity show that most of problems of theory of gravitation may be removed by use of LITG with the idea of using a metric similar to metric of general relativity, as a first approximation to a more accurate theory of gravitational field. In this case, general relativity becomes an extension of special relativity and has its function in the case when the results of spacetime measurements are dependent on existing in a system of electromagnetic and gravitational fields produced by sources of charge and mass. If there were not of influence of gravitation on propagation of light, similar to effects of deflection of electromagnetic waves from the initial direction, changing the wavelength and speed of its propagation, instead of general relativity would continue to operate special relativity and would be valid LITG. As well as special relativity is not a substitute of electrodynamics then general relativity can not be instead of LITG or electrodynamics, which have arisen and exist independently of general relativity. From the point of view of LITG, Einstein-Hilbert equations for metric are needed to determine the metric tensor that defines effective properties of spacetime for a given energy-momentum distribution, and changes metric tensor of flat Minkowski space. After finding the metric tensor from the equations for the metric, electrodynamics and LITG are not just Lorentz covariant (it is a special case of covariance that take place only in special relativity), but covariant for all the possible systems of reference in which the metric can be found. It follows from the possibility of writing the equations of these theories in the vector and tensor form. Then LITG becomes the covariant theory of gravitation (CTG).
A feature of LITG is that in it the force of gravitation, in contrast to most other theories, including general relativity, is not a consequence of curvature of spacetime, but a real physical force, determined by covariant way in all reference frames. Taking into account the limited in value speed of gravity and using the method calculating the field Liénard–Wiechert potential (Alfred Liénard, 1898, Emil Wiechert, 1900) inevitably leads to the Lorentz covariance of gravitational field in the weak field limit and to the need for torsion of gravitational field. LITG structure resembles the structure of electromagnetic field theory, but a synthesis of GR and LITG ideas unlike electromagnetism significantly alters the meaning and interpretation of the theory of gravitation itself, resulting in a covariant theory of gravitation (CTG). According to its position LITG is between the static Newton's gravitational theory, not yet included the speed of propagation of gravity and not calculated the force of gravitation in inertial reference frames, and general theory of relativity, which considers phenomenon already in non-inertial reference systems through non-Euclidean geometry. LITG uses a generalization of extended special theory of relativity for gravitational phenomena.
Gravitational field equations in Euclidean space consist of four vector differential equations for two strengths of the gravitational field and can be regarded as Maxwell-like gravitational equations. In International System of Units, these equations  are as follows: 
These equations coincide in form with the equations arising from general relativity in the weak field limit (see gravitoelectromagnetism). The torsion field lines are always closed, as in magnetic field, whereas the gravitational field strength lines can escape to infinity. As follows from the equations, the torsion is produced by the motion of matter and change in time of gravitational field strength. When a body rotates with constant angular speed torsion field around the body has stationary character. When torsion field is changed over time, a vortical field of acceleration is generated in space around the body. The total gravitational force acting on the body has two components. One of them is normal force of Newton, which depends on gravitational field strength and mass, while the other depends on the vector product of velocity of the body and torsion field, which is in space at the location of the body. Therefore, each body acts on other bodies, not only through the gravitational field strength, but also through torsion created by body rotation.
The expression for the gravitational force is as follows:
This formula coincides with expression for the force of general relativity in the weak field limit,   although in some publications of general relativity in the formula for force to the speed is factor of 2 due to the proposed doubling of the mass for the field .
For the energy density, the vector of energy flux density (Heaviside vector), and the vector of momentum density of gravitational field in LITG are obtained:
Main source: Gravitational torsion field
For torsion outside of a rotating body from the field equations by integrating over all points of the body can be derived the formula:
where is angular momentum of rotation or spin of the body.
The torsion of gravitational field of a body at rectilinear motion is:
where – speed of movement of the body, – field strength of the gravitational field of the body in the point where the torsion is determined, and field strength is taken in view of the delay distribution of the gravitational perturbation.
In general, the torsion of an arbitrary point of moving mass can be expressed in terms of gravitational field strength , which is produced by the point:
where is the unit vector directed from the point mass to the point where torsion is determined, taken at an early time, dependent on the delay.
The formula for the torque acting on a rotating particle with spin in torsion field , is written as follows:
Rotating particle can be considered like a top with spin . Under the action of the torque of torsion field particle will precess along the field direction . This follows from the equations of rotational motion:
Since the torque is perpendicular to the spin and torsion , then the same is true for the increment of the spin for the time . Perpendicularity of and leads to the spin precession of a particle with angular velocity around direction of .
The last equality follows from the fact that , and ,
where is the angle between and , the angle is measured from the projection of vector on the plane perpendicular to the vector , to the projection of vector on this plane.
In the presence of an inhomogeneous torsion field a particle with spin will attract in the region of stronger field. From equations of LITG follow the expression for such force:
The mechanical energy of a particle with spin in torsion field will be:
The presence of torsion field in gravitational phenomena leads to the effect of gravitational induction.
If we introduce the notion scalar and vector potentials of gravitational field, then it is possible to express field strength and torsion field :
As for the field strengths so for potentials themselves in LITG true wave equations, depending on the mass density and mass current. These wave equations are directly derived from the basic equations of the field and have the form:
For the potentials is used gauge condition, which reduces the degree of uncertainty:
The presence of wave equations for strengths and potentials suggests that gravitational field propagates in the form of waves. The speed of propagation of gravitational waves is assumed to be close to the speed of light.
Scalar and vector potentials of gravitational field together form the gravitational four-potential:
The wave equations for the potentials of gravitational field can be expressed by one equation through D'Alembert operator , acting on four-potential, and with a constant factor equal to the four-momentum density: 
where is a 4-momentum density (current density of mass), which generates a gravitational field, is four-velocity, – mass density of matter in its rest system.
When 4-divergence of 4-vector and are equal to zero, it is possible to set gauge condition for potentials and continuity equation, respectively:
With the help of 4-vector can be determined the antisymmetric gravitational tensor:
In Minkowski space the components of this tensor are:
With the help of the tensor four vector equations of gravitational field are transformed into two tensor equations:
The density of gravitational force is given by the corresponding 4-vector:
The tensor of gravitational field strengths allows building of gravitational stress-energy tensor:
is the metric tensor in Minkowski spacetime.
Time-like components of the tensor are the energy density of gravitational field and the Heaviside vector, divided by speed of gravity . The space-like components form a three-dimensional tensor of gravitational stresses (of gravitational pressure), taken with the opposite sign. Tensor is built from invariants of the tensor such that from it also possible to find the 4-vector density of gravitational force:
Thus, the theory of gravitational field can research phenomena up to relativistic velocities of bodies.
For a single particle in a gravitational field Lagrangian has the form:
where – invariant interval, – 4-vector of particle displacement, – element of 3-volume.
Time integral of the Lagrangian is a function of action, by varying of which there are the Lagrange equations, which give equations of motion of particles in gravitational field and equation for the field itself. In particular, for a single particle is derived Newton's second law in relativistic form, on which the rate of change of momentum of a particle with time is equal to gravitational force.
From various experiments on the propagation of light near massive bodies (see tests of general relativity) follow that gravitational field of the bodies bends light rays, changing speed and frequency of electromagnetic waves. This means that measured dimensions of the bodies and time are dependent on their location in gravitational field, in particular from the field potentials. Thus, there is a dependence of properties of spacetime of used reference systems in gravitational field. Gravitation effectively distorts the flat four-dimensional Minkowski world. To take this into consideration, instead of the metric tensor in general is used the metric tensor .
The tensor of gravitational field strengths is still determined by the 4-potential:
The field equations in an arbitrary frame of reference through the covariant derivatives of tensor gravitational field can be expressed by two tensor equations:
Gauge condition for potentials and continuity equation for the mass 4-current are written respectively as follows:
Stress-energy tensor of gravitational field takes the following form:
In general relativity is possible to calculate the metric in the limit of weak fields inside a homogeneous sphere without internal pressure, and without energy-momentum of fields, when , where – a small supplement. For time components of metric tensor follow :
in static case, and in dynamic case, where
These equations in terms of LITG mean that the additive components to the metric tensor as it were twice as much dependent on the vector potential , than the components depend on the scalar gravitational potential . In general relativity, which are based on the components of the metric tensor, or discover that being found from the equations the vector potential in double "weaker" than the scalar potential (this leads to LITG), or define a new vector potential in the form of . Hence, in some papers on gravitoelectromagnetism gravitational vector potential, and after him, the vector of gravitomagnetic field twice differ, respectively, on the magnitude of vector and the vector of torsion field , which are used in LITG. At the same time it leads to a difference in two times in formula for the component of force which is associated with gravitomagnetic field. There is a statement that the gravitational mass for gravitomagnetic field two times higher than for gravitoelectric field, as a consequence of tensor nature of the metric field of general relativity. 
At the same time, in case of classical definition of gravitational vector potential equations of general relativity in the weak field limit coincide with the equations of LITG,    see also gravitoelectromagnetism. Indeed, in a weak field LITG and GR operate effectively in Minkowski space and must be Lorentz covariant. As a result, in publications of general relativity can be found at least five different versions of formulas for the weak gravitational field and the total force,     so that conclusions of general relativity for a weak field up to now is impossible to recognize generally accepted.
As in general relativity, in formulas of LITG to account for strong-field instead of the metric tensor is used metric tensor . As a result LITG transforms in covariant theory of gravitation (CTG). However, the approach of LITG and CTG in relation of essence of gravitational field is opposite to general relativity – if the geometry in general relativity as it gives rise to gravitation, in LITG gravitational properties of bodies and their surroundings alter the geometry of the world, which is observed and measured by means of electromagnetic waves. The cause of gravitation in Le Sage's theory of gravitation is in action of gravitons flows,   which is consistent with LITG, but contrary to a sense of general relativity.
Due to the tensor in LITG and CTG automatically solve the current problem of lack in general relativity of stress-energy tensor of gravitational field. Tensor is involved in solving all the problems in finding the metric. Together with the boundary conditions (for example, on the surface of massive bodies and at infinity) it sets the conditions necessary for the correct identification of reference systems, allowing to avoid the corresponding problem of general relativity. For example, calculations made with respect to the contribution of gravitational field energy in the metric, have shown that the additive is of second order to the square of the speed of light and contains terms with fourth power of the speed of light.  
The general theory of relativity goes a step further with respect to the theories of electromagnetism and gravitation field (LITG) – it takes into account the fact that mass-energy of fields affect on the passage of time and values of the measured lengths by changing the speed of electromagnetic waves (light), one way or otherwise used in measuring instruments. At the same time, the electromagnetic wave is not the only one that can be used for space-time measurements. With the same success in terms of theory it is possible to use gravitational waves. If their speed is not equal to the speed of light, the content of the theory of relativity formulas is different, since they include the speed of gravitational waves. It has been shown in paper. 
According to LITG, gravitational field is a separate physical field. A metric field consisting of the components of the metric tensor and depends on time and coordinates of the point where it is defined, is derived and is the total effect on the presentation of the mass density, the pressure in it, the state of motion of the matter (speed, acceleration) as well as available gravitational and electromagnetic fields and other possible values of energy-momentum. In contrast to general relativity, in LITG metric field is not identified with the gravitational field, the metric field simply considered necessary for a correct description of phenomena.
Since gravitational field is a vectorial field in LITG (not a tensor, as in general relativity), then in LITG is allowed dipole gravitational radiation. The power of this radiation for the case of a periodic rotation of a body mass around the center of attraction is equal to: 
where is angular velocity of rotation, – radius of rotation.
From this formula it follows that a gravitational closed system of a two bodies can emit only the quadrupole radiation (for each body, the dipole radiation has the same power but is directed opposite to the other). Indeed, the terms and in the formula for the emission of both bodies are equal to each other, and the angular velocity can be considered the same. All of this correlates with the observed absence of dipole gravitational radiation from close binary neutron stars. It can be noted also that the above formula for the dipole gravitational radiation corresponds to the formula for the dipole electromagnetic radiation of rotating charge. It is known that if a system of particles has the same charge to mass ratio for all particles then dipole electromagnetic radiation is absent.  If in a system of two bodies on the stationary orbits one body is charged, in addition to the gravitational electromagnetic radiation occurs. In this case, we should expect not only quadrupole, but dipole gravitational radiation from the system, since at their bodies there is a mismatch dipole gravitational radiations.
According to LITG this phenomenon arises even in flat Minkowski space between any two rotating objects, with its own angular momentum or spin. Interpretation of the effect in LITG is so that rotating bodies create around them torsion fields, which interact with each other in the same way as two magnetic dipole. A similar interaction of the spins in general relativity is called spin-spin precession or spin Lense–Thirring precession or Pugh-Schiff precession. This effect relies a consequence of gravitomagnetic frame-dragging, that is dragging of freely falling bodies near a massive rotating object. In general relativity, gravitation is replaced by the curvature of space, so that the deviation of a test particle from its normal geodesic line is due to the rotation of a massive body and a corresponding change in the metric.
Due to the weakness of the effect it is desirable to have at least one rotating body had great spin and therefore a large torsion field. As such a body is convenient to take the Earth, and a second body – rapidly spinning gyroscope in orbit around the Earth. Measuring the effect was carried by satellite Gravity Probe B in 2004-2005. The formula for angular velocity of precession of interaction of the spins in LITG is as follows:
and spin of the gyroscope precesses about the direction of torsion field , which is created by the spin of the Earth. The torsion field of the Earth as dipole field is given by:
where – spin (angular momentum) of the Earth, – distance from the center of Earth to the satellite, defined by the radius of the Earth and height of the satellite (for Gravity Probe B the height was of 640 km.)
Torsion field in the motion of the satellite in orbit is constantly changing, so for assessments of the precession is more convenient to use the formula for the value of the effect in a constant field. Assume that the gyroscope is kept just above the north pole of the Earth, where and are parallel, and the field has maximum. In this case, the formula for the torsion field of the Earth is simplified, and angular velocity of precession is equal to:
Under the condition of equality of the speed of gravity and the speed of light, for Gravity Probe B value should be approximately equal to 0.0409 arcsecond per year or 6.28•10–15 rad/sec. The same formula for effect, but after averaging along all the orbit, is obtained in general relativity. 
In the motion of a test particle on a closed path around a massive body with a spin, there is an effect of torsion field of the body spin on the path of the particle. On the particle acts Lorentz force of gravitation, creating a moment of force and causing a change in the direction of the orbital angular momentum of the particle, i.e. orbital precession. The equation of rotational motion of a particle is:
where force is equal to: , the quantities and denote the mass and velocity of the particle, and the orbital angular momentum of the particle is
In the reference frame associated with the center of the Earth, the vectors and are parallel to each other, and their cross product is zero. To calculate the torsion field of the Earth, use the formula (1). For simplicity, assume that the orbit of a particle purely circular, so that the radius vector of the particle perpendicular to its velocity and . This gives:
It follows that the angular velocity of precession of orbital angular momentum is equal to:
Accounting for the effect of gravitational field and the Earth's rotation on space-time metric in general relativity give the result, that the angular velocity of precession of the orbital angular momentum becomes more and approximately equal .  In addition, the precession is not only for the orbital angular momentum of a test particle, but also for the perihelion of its orbit. For satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS II angular velocity of precession of the nodes of orbit is obtained about 0.031 arcsecond per year, with the distance from the satellite to the Earth's surface of about 6000 km.
In geodetic effect, also called de Sitter effect are contributed two different phenomena. The first of these may be called the spin-orbit interaction. In the case of a gyroscope in orbit around the Earth, this interaction can be understood as the effect of torsion field from the orbital rotation of the Earth (relative to the reference system rigidly connected to the center of mass of the gyroscope), on the spin of the gyroscope. Earth rotates relative to the gyroscope with velocity , opposite to the direction of the velocity of the gyroscope relative to the Earth. The orbital torsion which is produced by the Earth can be estimated by the formula:
where – field strength of Earth's gravitational field near the gyroscope.
The angular velocity of the spin-orbit precession will be:
here was took into account that
The second term, making contributions to de Sitter effect is related to the influence of gravitational field on the metric around the Earth. The presence of the field leads to an effective curvature of space-time, which is expressed in an appropriate amendment to the metric tensor of flat Minkowski space.  The magnitude of the second term is two times more than As a result, the angular velocity of de Sitter precession is:
Substituting the field strength of the Earth's gravitational field near gyroscope where – the mass of the Earth, with condition for the gyroscope on the satellite Gravity Probe B the angular velocity of precession is of the order of 6.6 arcsecond per year.
Refinement of LITG results and comparison with the results of gravitational experiments carried out in covariant theory of gravitation. 
As it was shown in one paper,  equivalence principle of general relativity does not hold with respect to the mass-energy of gravitational field itself. In particular, in the weak field limit the gravitational mass-energy of gravitational field of a stationary body, and the inertial mass-energy of field of moving with constant velocity the same body does not coincide with each other.  A similar situation is known for electromagnetic field and is called 4/3 problem. One possible explanation for this is as follows. Most theories of gravitation, including LITG and general relativity, only by mathematical language (with the help of symbols), or geometrically, by means of spatial representations describe the phenomenon of gravitation, without delving into its essence and not offering a specific physical mechanism of interaction of gravitons with matter. So, general relativity predicts black holes, based on the alleged large gravitational force, able to effectively deal with the nuclear forces of repulsion of nucleons in superdense matter of neutron stars and a more massive objects, and compressing matter up to the state of gravitational singularity. These assumptions lead to contradictions, like the fundamental unobservability of the inner structure of black holes. In such cases, when the research reaches the field carriers themselves and their interaction with matter, in the absence of reliable data on the properties and energy density of field quantum conclusions of the theories become inaccurate. The solution of such problems are expected with the transition to quantum field theory level, which is difficult for general relativity (see quantum gravity), but easier for LITG by the structure of its equations, which coincides with the structure of the equations of successfully quantized electrodynamics.
On the other hand, if to use Le Sage's theory of gravitation as a model of gravitation, the difference in mass-energy of the gravitational field of a stationary and moving bodies could show the difference of relative rest and motion – in motion the mass-energy of the field increases 4/3 times by adding to the field energy of work against the flow of gravitons, necessary to transfer the body from one state of motion to another. The 4/3 problem can also be solved for the whole system, if we introduce the two vector fields – acceleration field and pressure field. Both these fields, together with the gravitational and electromagnetic field are combined in such a way that the total mass-energy of fields in the system vanishes. 
The articles   within LITG equations (as well as the equations of gravitomagnetism as approximations of general relativity) clarify the relativistic expressions for the energy and momentum of gravitational field inside and outside a homogeneous sphere. The conclusion is that inequality of field mass-energy, found from gravitational energy and momentum of the field is an intrinsic property of the field, contrary to the principle of equivalence between the gravitational and inertial masses in general relativity. Analysis of the 4/3 problem, and ways to include the mass of the field in common body mass leads to the following expression: , where is the rest energy, is the negative energy of gravitational binding.
Meanwhile, in GR another expression is used: , see Mass in general relativity#The Newtonian limit for nearly flat space-times.
If to consider the virial theorem, from LITG it follows the formula for mass of a body at rest through energies of fundamental fields:
where – energy of strong gravitation proposed as the basis of strong interaction in matter of nucleons and atoms, – energy of electromagnetic field in matter of nucleons and at the atomic level, – energy of cosmological scale gravitation, – energy of electromagnetic field in body matter and beyond.
In static case , , and body mass increases due to the gravitational energy and decreases due to electrical energy. This conclusion is subject to correction, because it was found the difference between the gravitational mass and the mass of a system consisting of particles and fields.  Thus it turns out that the mass of the system can be constant, but the gravitational mass increases with decreasing size of the system due to the contribution of the gravitational energy. In contrast to general relativity, the gravitational mass of the body should be reduced by electric mass-energy if the electric charge is transferred to the body.
A more accurate analysis of mass and energy was carried out in articles,   where five types of masses of the relativistic uniform system are defined:
Here, the gauge mass is related to the cosmological constant and represents the mass-energy of the matter’s particles in the four-potentials of the system’s fields; the inertial mass ; the auxiliary mass is equal to the product of the particles’ mass density by the volume of the system; the mass is the sum of the invariant masses (rest masses) of the system’s particles, which is equal in value to the gravitational mass .
The conclusion that as the electric charge increases the system’s mass may decrease remains valid, however this applies not to the gravitational mass , but to the inertial mass of the system.