**Praons** is the general name for a
family of hypothetical particles, consisting of neutral n-praons and positively
charged p-praons. In the theory of Infinite Hierarchical
Nesting of Matter, praons are similar in their properties to nucleons, that is, to neutrons
and protons. To assess the properties of praons, the similarity of matter levels is used. It is assumed that
praons consist of graons in a similar way as nucleons consist of praons, and
neutron stars consist of nucleons.

**Содержание**

- 1
Origin
- 2 Properties
- 3 Wave quanta
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links

**Origin**

Assuming that SPФ symmetry is valid at all levels of
matter, the laws of nature act in the same way at these levels. Hence we can
assume that as nucleons form the ordinary matter, so praons are the basis of
the matter from which nucleons, electrons and other particles are composed. A
typical neutron star contains approximately *Ф* = 1.62∙10^{57 }nucleons, and the same number of praons is expected
inside each nucleon. This allows us to understand why in accelerators in
collisions of nucleons with particles of the highest energy, decay products
behave like liquid plasma jets, and no fairly large particles, such as partons
or individual quarks, are detected.

In general, we can talk about the wave of matter evolution in the Universe.
A typical scenario for the appearance of a neutron star is as follows: first,
under the action of gravitation compression of a large gas cloud takes place,
in which the primary stars emerge. The evolution of stars of sufficient mass
ends with a supernova and birth of a neutron star, and the low-mass stars turn
into white dwarfs. Thus, before the appearance of compact star remnants, there
must have been the matter in the form of gas. Similarly, we can imagine that
the existence of the matter of praons in the form of gas eventually led to the
formation of the matter of nucleons such as hydrogen gas clouds. The wave of
evolution in this case moves in the direction from the lower levels of matter
to the higher levels of matter, from the smallest particles, such as graons, to
praons, then to nucleons, neutron stars and to even larger objects. Since each
basic level of matter generates its own fluxes of relativistic particles and
wave quanta that generate fundamental interactions, such as gravitation and
electromagnetism based on the mechanism of Le Sage’s gravitation, then the wave
of evolution also refers to fundamental interactions. This means that emergence
of objects of a certain level of matter would be impossible if there would be
no sufficiently large number of particles of the lower levels of matter and no
fluxes of relativistic particles, generated by them and making their
contribution into the multicomponent vacuum force field.

**Properties**

A typical neutron star has the mass of 1.35 Solar masses, the radius of the
order of 12 km, and the __characteristic speed__ of
particles in such a star reaches 0.23 of the speed of light. Dividing these values
by the corresponding values for the proton, we obtain the similarity
coefficients: in mass *Ф** *= 1.62∙10^{57 }, in sizes *Р** *= 1.4∙10^{19 }, and in speed *S *=
2.3∙10^{– 1 }. In the first approximation, we can assume that the same
similarity coefficients in mass and sizes are also valid for the relationship
between praons and nucleons. Hence we determine the praon mass kg and its radius m, in this case we used the proton radius m. ^{[1]} Using the mass and radius of
the praon we can estimate the average density of its matter kg /m^{3 }.

The characteristic speed for the particles of matter inside the proton and
praon is close enough to the speed of light. In this case, instead of the
particles’ speed it is convenient to use their Lorentz factor. In the __relativistic uniform
model__, there is a formula for the dependence of the Lorentz
factor on the current radius inside the system of particles of a spherical
shape, held in equilibrium by the gravitation force and the force of internal
pressure: ^{[2]}

where is the speed of light, is the Lorentz factor of the particles at the
center of the sphere, is the current radius, is the invariant mass density of the system’s
particles, is the coefficient of the __acceleration
field__.

In such objects as the neutron star, proton, and also praon, the average mass
density does not differ much from the central mass density, so that this
formula must provide the correct order of magnitude of the Lorentz factor. We
will now use the expression for the rest mass of a spherical body:

If we substitute here the neutron star’s mass instead of , the star’s radius instead of , and use the average mass
density instead of , and also take into account the equality , ^{[3]} where is the __gravitational constant__,
then we can calculate the Lorentz factor at the center of the star: . The similar approach can be
applied to the proton, with the difference that instead of the ordinary
gravitational constant we should use the __strong gravitational
constant __ m^{3}•s^{–2}•kg^{–1}.
So it turns out that at the center of the proton the Lorentz factor for the
praons, located there, equals 1.9. ^{[4]}

Finally, for the praon it is necessary to use the gravitational
constant , acting at its level of
matter.

To estimate this constant, we can apply the similarity relations between the
levels of praons and nucleons: . Since in nucleons and praons the velocities
are close to the speed of light, we can assume that . Hence it follows that the value of the
praon’s gravitational constant is m^{3}•s^{–2}•kg^{–1}.
After substituting into (2) the mass, radius and density of the praon, taking
into account the equality , we find
the Lorentz factor at the center of the praon, which is approximately equal to
1.9.

The typical angular momentum at each level of matter is given by the Dirac constant. For compact stars J∙s, for the nucleons’ level of matter J∙s, while the quantum spin of the nucleon is
equal to . To estimate the Dirac
constant at the level of praons, the following
similarity relation can be used: . If the
coefficient of similarity in speeds is , then we obtain J∙s.

The Boltzmann constant for the level of praons at is given by the expression: J/K, where I s the Boltzmann
constant.

For the strong gravitational constant the following relation holds true:

where is the elementary
charge, is the __electric constant__,
is the proton mass, is the electron mass, is the
ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass. Similarly, at the level of
praons we obtain the following:

Hence we find the praon’s charge C.

By analogy with a free neutron, which undergoes beta-decay in seconds, we can estimate the lifetime of a free neutral n-praon. To do this, we can
use the similarity relation at , which gives seconds.

**Wave quanta**

It is assumed that praons are not only “the building material” for nucleons
and electrons that form the matter, but also they make up the composition of
all hadrons and leptons. Moreover, such wave quanta as photons should also
consist of praons. During transition of the excited electron in the atom to the
state with lower energy, the center of the electron cloud is shifted relative
to the nucleus, which leads to the quantum spin of the electron (see __substantial
electron model__). In this case, the periodic electromagnetic
field of the rotating electron appears, acting on the fluxes of the vacuum
field’s praons and making up a photon of them. In the substantial photon model,
praons are closely associated with the __strong gravitation__
and form sufficiently rigid wave structure of the photon, rotating during its
motion. ^{[5]} For the case of
the electron transition from the second level to the first level in the
hydrogen atom, when a photon with the angular frequency s ^{-1
}is emitted in the Lyman series, the total rest mass of all the
praons of such a photon is equal to kg. If we divide the mass by the rest mass of one praon kg, we can estimate the number of praons in
this photon: .

Let us now consider the electron antineutrino emitted in the free
neutron decay. If from the energy of the neutron at rest we subtract the rest energy of
the proton and the electron, arising from the decay, then the energy obtained
will be equal to the antineutrino energy, to which we must add the sum of the
kinetic energies of the electron and the proton. In the limiting case, the sum
of the kinetic energies of the electron and the proton is minimal, and the
antineutrino energy reaches the maximum possible value of keV or J. If we denote by the total rest mass of all the particles
making up the antineutrino, then for the antineutrino energy we can write: , where is the speed of light. Hence, with the Lorentz
factor equal to , as in the case of the
photon, we can estimate the antineutrino mass:
kg. It turns out that the mass of all the
particles of this antineutrino is 4.6 times greater than the mass of praons in
the photon, emitted in the hydrogen atom at the angular frequency s^{-1 }in the Lyman series.

According to the __substantial
neutron model__, the electron antineutrino, emitted from
the neutron in its beta decay, is made of the praantineutrinos
and praneutrinos, which arise respectively in the beta
decay of n-praons, that compose the neutron, and in the capture of praelectrons by p-praons, that is, in the weak interaction
reactions, but already at the level of matter of praons. ^{[}^{6]} This
means that the electron antineutrino consists of multiple parallel fluxes of
the vacuum field’s graons, while each of these fluxes is formed at the moment
when the corresponding neutron’s praon is transformed in the weak interaction
reaction. The parallel alignment of the graon fluxes is due
to the fact that the magnetic moments of the praons inside the neutron are
directed by the strong magnetic field of the neutron. Antineutrino by its form represents a cylindrical object moving at the
speed of light, with the cross-section equal to the cross-section of the neutron.
The right helicity of antineutrinos means that the graon fluxes
are twisted to the right relative to the direction of motion of antineutrinos,
which coincides with the spin direction of the decaying neutron. The stability
of antineutrinos is maintained by the strong gravitation acting at the level of
graons and by electromagnetic forces.

From this we see that the structures of the photon and the antineutrino are
absolutely different, they also differ in the composition of their main
particles. Being composed of the smallest graons, neutrinos and antineutrinos
have an extremely high penetrating ability, in spite of the fact that they have
energies and rest masses comparable with those of photons.

**See**** also**

__Nuon__- Preon
- Parton
- Quarks
- Model of quark
quasiparticles
- Substantial electron model
- Substantial neutron
model
- Substantial proton
model

**References**

1. Fedosin S.G. The radius of the proton in the
self-consistent model. Hadronic Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 349-363
(2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.889451.

2. Fedosin S.G. The Integral Energy-Momentum 4-Vector and
Analysis of 4/3 Problem Based on the Pressure Field and Acceleration Field.
American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 152-167 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.12.

3. Fedosin S.G. The binding energy and the total
energy of a macroscopic body in the relativistic uniform model. Preprint, June
2016.

4. Fedosin S.G. The Gravitational Field in the Relativistic Uniform Model
within the Framework of the Covariant Theory of Gravitation. International
Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 78, pp. 39-50 (2018). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.78.39.

5. Fedosin S.G. The substantial model of the photon. Journal of Fundamental
and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 411-467 (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i1.25.

6. Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm,
2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN
978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

**External**** links**

Source: http://sergf.ru/praen.htm