**Praons** is the
general name for a family of hypothetical particles, consisting of neutral n-praons
and positively charged p-praons. In the theory of Infinite
Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, praons are
similar in their properties to nucleons, that is, to neutrons and protons. To
assess the properties of praons, the similarity of matter levels is used. It is assumed that praons consist of
graons in a similar way as nucleons consist of praons, and neutron stars
consist of nucleons.

**Содержание**

- 1 Origin
- 2 Properties
- 3 Wave
quanta
- 4 See
also
- 5 References
- 6 External
links

**Origin**

Assuming that SPФ
symmetry is valid at all levels of
matter, the laws of nature act in the same way at these levels. Hence we can assume
that as nucleons form the ordinary matter, so praons are the basis of the
matter from which nucleons, electrons and other particles are composed. A
typical neutron star contains approximately *Ф* = 1.62∙10^{57 }nucleons, and the same
number of praons is expected inside each nucleon. This allows us to understand
why in accelerators in collisions of nucleons with particles of the highest
energy, decay products behave like liquid plasma jets, and no fairly large
particles, such as partons or individual quarks, are detected.

In general, we can talk about
the wave of matter evolution in the Universe. A typical scenario for the
appearance of a neutron star is as follows: first, under the action of
gravitation compression of a large gas cloud takes place, in which the primary
stars emerge. The evolution of stars of sufficient mass ends with a supernova
and birth of a neutron star, and the low-mass stars turn into white dwarfs.
Thus, before the appearance of compact star remnants, there must have been the
matter in the form of gas. Similarly, we can imagine that the existence of the
matter of praons in the form of gas eventually led to the formation of the
matter of nucleons such as hydrogen gas clouds. The wave of evolution in this
case moves in the direction from the lower levels of matter to the higher
levels of matter, from the smallest particles, such as graons, to praons, then
to nucleons, neutron stars and to even larger objects. Since each basic level
of matter generates its own fluxes of relativistic particles and wave quanta
that generate fundamental interactions, such as gravitation and
electromagnetism based on the mechanism of Le Sage’s gravitation, then the wave
of evolution also refers to fundamental interactions. This means that emergence
of objects of a certain level of matter would be impossible if there would be
no sufficiently large number of particles of the lower levels of matter and no
fluxes of relativistic particles, generated by them and making their
contribution into the multicomponent vacuum force field.

**Properties**

A typical neutron star has the
mass of 1.35 Solar masses, the radius of the order of 12 km, and the __characteristic
speed__ of particles in such a star reaches 0.23 of the
speed of light. Dividing these values by the corresponding values for the
proton, we obtain the similarity coefficients: in mass *Ф** *= 1.62∙10^{57 }, in sizes *Р** *= 1.4∙10^{19 }, and in speed *S *= 2.3∙10^{– 1 }. In the first
approximation, we can assume that the same similarity coefficients in mass and
sizes are also valid for the relationship between praons and nucleons. Hence we
determine the praon mass kg and
its radius m, in
this case we used the proton radius m. ^{[1]}
Using the mass and radius of the praon we can estimate the average density of
its matter kg /m^{3
}.

The characteristic speed for
the particles of matter inside the proton and praon is close enough to the
speed of light. In this case, instead of the particles’ speed it is convenient
to use their Lorentz
factor. In the __relativistic uniform
model__, there is a formula for the dependence of the
Lorentz factor on the current radius inside the system of particles of a
spherical shape, held in equilibrium by the gravitation force and the force of
internal pressure: ^{[2]}

where is the
speed of light, is the Lorentz
factor of the particles at the center of the sphere, is the
current radius, is the
invariant mass density of the system’s particles, is the
coefficient of the __acceleration field__.

In such objects as the neutron
star, proton, and also praon, the average mass density does not differ much
from the central mass density, so that this formula must provide the correct
order of magnitude of the Lorentz factor. We will now use the expression for
the rest mass of a spherical body:

If we substitute here the
neutron star’s mass instead of , the
star’s radius instead of , and use the average mass density instead of , and
also take into account the equality , ^{[3]}
where is the __gravitational
constant__, then we can calculate the Lorentz factor at the
center of the star: . The similar approach can be applied to the
proton, with the difference that instead of the ordinary gravitational constant
we should use the __strong gravitational constant __ m^{3}•s^{–2}•kg^{–1}.
So it turns out that at the center of the proton the Lorentz factor for the
praons, located there, equals 1.9. ^{[4]}

Finally, for the praon it is
necessary to use the gravitational constant
, acting at its level of matter.

To estimate this constant, we
can apply the similarity relations between the levels of praons and
nucleons: . Since
in nucleons and praons the velocities are close to the speed of light, we can
assume that . Hence
it follows that the value of the praon’s gravitational constant is m^{3}•s^{–2}•kg^{–1}.
After substituting into (2) the mass, radius and density of the praon, taking
into account the equality , we find the Lorentz factor at the center of
the praon, which is approximately equal to 1.9.

The typical angular momentum
at each level of matter is given by the Dirac constant. For compact stars J∙s, for
the nucleons’ level of matter J∙s,
while the quantum spin of the nucleon is equal to . To estimate the Dirac constant at the
level of praons, the following similarity relation can be used: . If the coefficient of similarity in speeds
is , then we obtain
J∙s.

The Boltzmann constant for the
level of praons at is given
by the expression: J/K,
where I s the Boltzmann
constant.

For the strong gravitational
constant the following relation holds true:

where is the elementary
charge, is the __electric
constant__, is the
proton mass, is the
electron mass, is the ratio of the proton mass to the
electron mass. Similarly, at the level of praons we obtain the following:

Hence we find the praon’s
charge C.

By analogy with a free
neutron, which undergoes beta-decay in seconds,
we can estimate the lifetime of a
free neutral n-praon. To do this, we can use the similarity relation at , which gives
seconds.

**Wave quanta**

It is assumed that praons are
not only “the building material” for nucleons and electrons that form the
matter, but also they make up the composition of all hadrons and leptons.
Moreover, such wave quanta as photons should also consist of praons. During
transition of the excited electron in the atom to the state with lower energy,
the center of the electron cloud is shifted relative to the nucleus, which
leads to the quantum spin of the electron (see __substantial electron
model__). In this case, the periodic electromagnetic field
of the rotating electron appears, acting on the fluxes of the vacuum field’s
praons and making up a photon of them. In the substantial photon model, praons
are closely associated with the __strong gravitation__ and
form sufficiently rigid wave structure of the photon, rotating during its
motion. ^{[5]} For the case of
the electron transition from the second level to the first level in the
hydrogen atom, when a photon with the angular frequency s ^{-1 }is emitted in the Lyman series, the
total rest mass of all the praons of such a photon is equal to kg. If we
divide the mass by the
rest mass of one praon kg, we
can estimate the number of praons in this photon: .

Let us now consider the
electron antineutrino emitted in the free
neutron decay. If from the
energy of the neutron at rest we subtract the rest energy of the proton and the
electron, arising from the decay, then the energy obtained will be equal to the
antineutrino energy, to which we must add the sum of the kinetic energies of
the electron and the proton. In the limiting case, the sum of the kinetic
energies of the electron and the proton is minimal, and the antineutrino energy
reaches the maximum possible value of keV or J. If we
denote by the
total rest mass of all the particles making up the antineutrino, then for the antineutrino
energy we can write: , where is the speed of light. Hence, with the Lorentz factor equal to , as in the case of the photon, we can estimate
the antineutrino mass: kg. It
turns out that the mass of all the particles of this antineutrino is 4.6 times
greater than the mass of praons in the photon, emitted in the hydrogen atom at
the angular frequency s^{-1 }in
the Lyman series.

According to the __substantial neutron
model__, the electron antineutrino, emitted from the
neutron in its beta decay, is made of the praantineutrinos
and praneutrinos, which arise respectively in the
beta decay of n-praons, that compose the neutron, and in the capture of praelectrons by p-praons, that is, in the weak interaction
reactions, but already at the level of matter of praons. ^{[}^{6]} This
means that the electron antineutrino consists of multiple parallel fluxes of
the vacuum field’s graons, while each of these fluxes is formed at the moment
when the corresponding neutron’s praon is transformed in the weak interaction
reaction. The parallel
alignment of the graon fluxes is due to the fact that
the magnetic moments of the praons inside the neutron are directed by the
strong magnetic field of the neutron. Antineutrino by its form represents a
cylindrical object moving at the speed of light, with the cross-section equal
to the cross-section of the neutron. The right helicity of antineutrinos means
that the graon fluxes are twisted to
the right relative to the direction of motion of antineutrinos, which coincides
with the spin direction of the decaying neutron. The stability of antineutrinos
is maintained by the strong gravitation acting at the level of graons and by
electromagnetic forces. It
is assumed that the emission time of an antineutrino during the decay of a free
neutron must be no less than the lifetime of free n-praons seconds. For comparison, we can consider the
formation of a neutron star in a supernova, which occurs with the emission of
neutrino and antineutrino fluxes with a total duration of the order of seconds. At the level of the matter of nucleons,
such a process can be considered as the formation of a neutron, with the
emission of fluxes of praantineutrinos and praneutrinos. The radiation time is estimated as seconds at .

From this we see that the
structures of the photon and the antineutrino are absolutely different, they
also differ in the composition of their main particles. Being composed of the
smallest graons, neutrinos and antineutrinos have an extremely high penetrating
ability, in spite of the fact that they have energies and rest masses
comparable with those of photons.

**See**** also**

__Nuon__- Preon
- Parton
- Quarks
- Model
of quark quasiparticles
- Substantial electron model
- Substantial
neutron model
- Substantial proton model

**References**

1. Fedosin S.G. The radius of the proton in the
self-consistent model. Hadronic Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 349-363
(2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.889451.

2. Fedosin S.G. The Integral Energy-Momentum 4-Vector and
Analysis of 4/3 Problem Based on the Pressure Field and Acceleration Field.
American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 152-167 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.12.

3. Fedosin S.G. The binding energy and the total
energy of a macroscopic body in the relativistic uniform model. Preprint, June
2016.

4. Fedosin
S.G. The Gravitational Field in the Relativistic Uniform Model within the
Framework of the Covariant Theory of Gravitation. International Letters of
Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 78, pp. 39-50 (2018). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.78.39.

5. Fedosin S.G. The substantial
model of the photon. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9,
No. 1, pp. 411-467 (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i1.25.

6. Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm,
2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN
978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

**External**** links**

Source:
http://sergf.ru/praen.htm