**Nuon** is a hypothetical neutral particle, which has the
properties of a muon, but it differs from it by its origin. Nuon as a necessary
new particle first appeared in the theory of Infinite
Hierarchical Nesting of Matter in 2009 in the course of explanation of the
evolution of elementary particles. ^{[1]} From
the standpoint of similarity of matter
levels and SPФ symmetry, the nuon’s analogue at the level of stars is a white dwarf.

- 1 The origin
- 2 The properties
- 3 Muon
- 4 The influence on the
cosmological model
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links

In the theory of infinite nesting
of matter it is assumed that evolution of the main levels of matter, which include
the level of elementary particles and the level of stars, occurs by the same
laws. Hence, it follows that the well-developed theory of stellar evolution
with necessary amendments can be used to describe the origin and evolution of
elementary particles. The similarity of matter levels leads to the conclusion
that at the level of stars neutrons correspond to neutron stars, protons
correspond to magnetars, and electrons correspond to discons or disks,
discovered near neutron stars. ^{[2]} Similarly, the analogues
of pions are neutron stars of lowest possible mass, and the analogues of muons
are white dwarfs, which remain after the decay of low mass neutron stars. White
dwarfs arise from the main sequence stars in the course of natural evolution,
at the end of the stage of thermonuclear fuel burn-up (hydrogen, helium,
carbon, etc.) in the interior of stars. This white dwarf represents the bare
core of a star at the red giant stage, which has blown off its outer envelope,
which forms a planetary nebula.

In sufficiently massive stars the
stage of thermonuclear burning reaches fusion of light atoms into the iron
atoms, and in the stellar core much iron is accumulated. Due to further
increase of the internal pressure, matter neutronization takes place by means of
capture of electrons by atomic nuclei, so that the stellar core becomes
unstable. This results in a supernova with a collapse of the stellar core,
formation of a neutron star, discharge of the envelope due to the conversion of
gravitational energy into kinetic energy and rebound of the envelope from the
formed neutron star. A neutron star can also be formed when the mass of the
carbon-oxygen white dwarf exceeds the mass limit (the Chandrasekhar limit).

The described scenario can be
applied to the level of elementary particles. This means that even before
appearance of electrons and nucleons, in our Universe there must have existed
(and periodically reappear) objects similar in their properties to planets and
main sequence stars, but with the size and mass typical for the level of
elementary particles. It is assumed that the main force that kept those objects
from decay was strong gravitation.
Evolution of those objects leads to emerging of electrons, nuons and nucleons.

To estimate the mass and radius
of nuons we must use the coefficients of similarity between the matter levels:
in mass *Ф*
= 1.62∙10^{57} , in size *Р*
= 1.4∙10^{19} , in velocity *S*
= 2.3∙10^{-1} . The masses of the observable white dwarfs range from
0.17 to 1.33 M_{s} , and the mass of the
majority of them is about 0.6 M_{s} , where M_{s}
denotes the Solar mass. Dividing the masses by *Ф* , we obtain the mass range
for nuons: from 2.1•10^{-28} kg up to 1.63•10^{-27} kg, which
is slightly less than the proton mass, equal to 1.6726•10^{-27} kg.

The radii of white dwarfs
decrease with increasing of their mass and range from 0.008 to 0.02 R_{s} , where
R_{s} is the Solar
radius. If we divide these radii by the coefficient of similarity in size *Р* , we
can estimate the range of nuons’ radii: from 3.98•10^{-13} m to 9.94•10^{-13}
m.

The white dwarf with the mass 0.6
M_{s} has the radius of about 0.0138 R_{s} .
^{[3]} The nuon corresponding to it has the mass kg and the radius m. Using the mass and radius we can determine the characteristic speed of the particles
inside this nuon:

m/s,

where m ^{3}•
s ^{–2}• kg^{–1} is the strong gravitational constant, is the elementary charge, is
the electric constant, is
the proton mass, is
the electron mass, is
for a uniform ball and increases when the density in the center of the ball is
higher than the average density.

To estimate the characteristic
spin angular momentum of the nuon we use an approximate formula: ^{[4]}

J•s.

The characteristic angular
momentum of the nuon under consideration exceeds the quantum spin of the
proton, which is equal:

J•s,

here is
the Planck constant, is
the Dirac constant.

The next level after the level of
elementary particles is the level of praons, which correlate with nucleons just
as nucleons correlate with neutron stars. ^{[1]}
In white dwarfs, the nucleons are bound in atomic nuclei, however the atoms are
almost entirely in the ionization state, and the mixture of nuclei and
electrons creates the matter in the form of plasma. The same holds true for the
nuons’ state of matter, which must consist of positively charged praons and
negatively charged particles – the analogues of electrons (praelectrons).

The pressure and temperature in
the center of the nuon are estimated by the formulas: ^{[5]}

Pa,

K,

where is
the pressure field coefficient, is
the acceleration field coefficient, kg is the
praon mass, J/K
is the Boltzmann constant for the level of praons, is
the Boltzmann constant.

The concentration of praons in
the center of the nuon is:

m^{-3 .}

For the concentration of praons
and the mass density averaged over the nuon’s volume
we can write the following:

m^{-3 .}

kg/m^{3} .

The Chandrasekhar limit indicates
the maximum mass of a white dwarf, beyond which a white dwarf can become a neutron
star. This mass depends on the chemical composition and ranges from 1.38 M_{s}
to 1.44 M_{s} . Dividing this mass by the
coefficient of similarity in mass *Ф* , we can estimate the maximum
mass of a nuon, which is ready to turn into a neutron: 1.767•10^{-27}
kg. For comparison, the neutron mass is 1.675•10^{-27} kg.

Being a neutral particle, a nuon
can hardly be identified in the experiments. However, muons as charged nuons
are accessible enough and a number of researches are carried out with them.

The main thing, in which a nuon
differs from a muon, is that a nuon is neutral and a muon has a charge, since
it is formed from the charged pion.

Strong gravitation allows
maintaining the spherical shape of a muon despite the fact that it bears the
elementary charge . From the ratio of the gravitational and
electrical forces acting on the matter unit with the mass and the charge on
the muon’s surface we can see that the following inequality holds:

provided that , and with regard to the definition of the strong
gravitational constant .

A muon is a charged nuon of the
lowest possible mass, which equals kg; at such mass the muon’s matter becomes
unstable – on the average in seconds the muon decays into an electron, a muon
neutrino and an electron antineutrino. At the level of stars it looks as if a
charged ultralight white dwarf with the mass
in a time
up to million years
collapsed with emission and formation of a negatively charged object of low
density. This time can be associated with the cooling time of a white dwarf,
after which recombination of matter ions and electrons, the pressure drop in
the star interior and transformation of the matter phase state from
ion-electron plasma to hot partially ionized atomic gas with an increase in the
star volume take place. The gas shell of the star as a whole due to ordinary
gravitation is not able to keep any significant electric charge, and the
charged matter is discharged from the star. At the same time, a charged white
dwarf or a neutron star can retain the stellar charge of the value C, since the electrons are held in atoms
and ions by electrical forces, and the matter’s atoms and nucleons are held
together by strong gravitation in addition to ordinary gravitation.

According to theoretical
calculations, a white dwarf with the mass
must have a radius of the order of .
Dividing this value by the coefficient of similarity in size *Р* , we will estimate the radius
of a muon and its density:

m,

kg/m^{3} .

Near the proton the muon should
decay under the action of strong gravitation and form a disk around the proton
similar to the electron’s disk according to the substantial electron model. The proton
mass density kg/m^{3} substantially exceeds the muon
density, here the value m is taken as the proton radius. ^{[6]} The Roche
limit, at which the muon must decay near the proton, is given by a formula:

m.

As a result, the muon disk is
located much closer to the nucleus than the electron disk in the hydrogen atom,
for which the characteristic radius is the Bohr radius m as the Roche limit corresponding to the electron.

In the observed galaxies, the
number of white dwarfs is less than 10% of all stars and the number of neutron
stars is about 10-100 times less than white dwarfs. Long-lasting evolution of
stellar systems, taking into account decrease in the number of white dwarfs due
to collisions with neutron stars, can lead to the fact that in the distant
future a large number of white dwarfs can remain in the Metagalaxy, which is comparable
to the amount of neutron stars. If we apply this pattern to the level of
elementary particles, it is expected that in addition to the matter in the form
of atoms and electrons there should be a significant proportion of nuons in
space, which are the analogues of white dwarfs.

Using the coefficients of
similarity we can calculate the ratio of the average density of nucleon matter
in the Metagalaxy to the total density of praon matter, which is equal to 0.61.
^{[7]} The nucleons consist of praons, and it turns out
that some portion of the praon matter is not part of nucleons. Approximately
39% of the entire mass should have a different form, in particular, the form of
nuons. As a result, we can consider nuons as good candidates for the role of
neutral particles of dark matter that have no charge and manifest themselves
through gravitational effects.

Besides, nuons are significantly
larger in size than nucleons, which allows us to suggest a new hypothesis of
the tired
light to explain the effect of cosmological redshift. The essence of the
hypothesis is that the light is scattered on the medium’s particles according
to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer
law and loses its energy. If it is considered true for each individual
photon, then we can write for the exponential energy attenuation of the photon
the following:

where is
the photon energy when it emerges, denotes the cross-section of the photons’ interaction with nuons, which is
equal by the order of magnitude to the nuon’s
cross-section, is the average concentration of nuons in cosmic space, is the path traveled by the photon, is
the Hubble constant, is
the speed of light.

Hence we obtain the relation of the form . If the redshift effect is caused by the
interaction of photons with nuons, then the redshift can be irregular in different
directions in the sky, as a consequence of different average concentration of
nuons on the way of photons. This effect is really observed, leading to almost
two times different values of the Hubble constant in calculations of
researchers studying different areas of the sky. The scattering of photons on
nuons also allows us to explain the observed change in the number of photons
from distant supernovae, which is expressed in the fact that these supernovae
seem to be located 10-15% farther than they actually are, and their stellar
magnitudes at maximum brightness differ from the magnitudes of close
supernovae. In addition, nuons can thermalize the stellar emission converting
it into the observed relic radiation and acting as a global blackbody.
These properties of nuons call in question the Big Bang model.

- Preon
- Parton
- Quarks
- Model of quark quasiparticles
- Substantial
electron model
- Substantial neutron model
- Substantial proton model

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podobiia ot preonov do metagalaktik,
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Integral Energy-Momentum 4-Vector and Analysis of 4/3 Problem Based on the
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Source: http://sergf.ru/nuen.htm