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Model of quark quasiparticles
The model of quark
quasiparticles is a theoretical model, which is alternative to the ideas of
the origin of quarks as a result of the Big bang and to the quark model in
Quantum Chromodynamics and the theory of elementary particles. To substantiate
the model of quark quasiparticles the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter,
theory of similarity of matter
levels, SPФ symmetry, strong gravitation, substantial neutron model and substantial proton model are used.
The model of quark quasiparticles shows that quarks are not independent
particles but quasiparticles, that is a manifestation
of symmetry of the hadrons’ states of matter in the transformation of this
matter under the influence of fundamental interactions, as well as in reactions
with elementary particles. It follows that the quark model is not final, but
rather an intermediate theory of hadrons’ structure.
Contents
 1 The standard theory
 2 The substantial approach
 2.1 The phase of
hadron matter
 2.2 Quarks
modeling
 3 Hadrons
 4 Model justification
 4.1 Twoparticle
reactions
 4.2 N and Δ baryons
 4.3 Strange
particles
 4.4 Dipion states
 4.5 Baryonium
 4.6 Massive
vector bosons
 4.7 Tquark and
the Higgs boson
 4.8 Tau lepton
 5 Answers to questions
 6 Interpretation of the quantum
numbers of quarks
 7 The symmetry of hadrons as the
cause of the idea of quarks
 8 See also
 9 References
 10 External links
The standard theory
Originally the theory of quarks
was developed as an artificial theoretical scheme to describe the symmetry of hadrons’
interactions. In chromodynamics the quarks are treated as point objects with
not precisely determined mass that make up hadrons – baryons and mesons. There
are six types (flavors) of quarks: u, d, s, c, b, t, which are generally
denoted by the symbol q. Antiquarks are denoted by tilde or a bar over the
quark symbol. It is supposed that baryons consist of three quarks and mesons
consist of a quark and an antiquark.
Quarks are considered to have a
special charge characteristic – color, as well as quantum numbers that
distinguish each quark from other particles. It is assumed that the essence of
strong interaction between hadrons is strong interaction between quarks by
exchanging gluons that transfer color. Quark decays result from weak
interaction with emission of massive vector Wbosons. Quarks transfer
fractional charge and halfinteger spin and can be located only inside hadrons
(the confinement effect, i.e. color confinement). In this case hadrons do not
have color due to color compensation in the quarks that constitute them.
Due to introduction of a number
of specific properties and additional characteristics in the structure of
particles and the action of new fields the idea of quarks allowed us to put in
an ordered system the set of hadrons and to describe the dynamics of their
interaction, including particle decays, the estimates of crosssection of their
interaction with each other, lifetime, spins and magnetic moments, energy
levels and particle masses. Despite these successes the theory has a significant
number of important problems, which have
not yet been solved.
The principal difficulty of the
theory is that in quantum chromodynamics the interaction of elementary
particles (quarks, leptons, vector bosons) is
considered practically as a point event with particles that do not have the
size. Describing such an interaction based on the symmetry of the gauge field
theory leads to mathematical divergences, which cannot be fully eliminated, and
to deliberate inaccuracies of theoretical predictions.
The substantial approach
Unobservability of quarks in a free state, locality of their
interaction, approximation of the quark matter behavior by ideal fluid in
collisions with high energy ^{[1]} lead to the idea that
quarks are a special kind of quasiparticles, which are closely related to the
hadrons’ matter.
Elementary particles have spin (characteristic angular momentum due to
selfrotation), electric charge, magnetic moment, and can have a complex inner
structure. Both quarks and hadrons are involved in all the four fundamental
interactions. It is assumed that during strong interactions quarks are
redistributed between hadrons and new quarkantiquark pairs and gluons are
produced from vacuum due to its polarization by gluons.
On the other hand, the strong
interaction can be explained by the strong
gravitation, gravitational
torsion field and electromagnetic forces based on the gravitational model of strong
interaction. ^{[2]} The density of the
matter inside the nucleon is only a few times greater than the mass density of
the neutron star, ^{[3]} where the matter is in
the state of neutron liquid with a small admixture of protons and electrons.
Decrease in the neutron star mass below the limit of 0.1 – 0.2 solar masses
inevitably leads to transformation of the stellar matter into a less dense
phase, similar to the matter of a white dwarf or even an ordinary star, with
energy release. ^{[4]} If we consider the hadrons’
matter in a similar way, then in reactions of particle scattering at
sufficiently high energy matter masses can break away from hadrons, with
subsequent change in their state and transformation into new elementary
particles. In many cases pions are produced (mesons with minimum mass), which
from the standpoint of the similarity
of matter levels are similar to a neutron star with the mass equal to 0.2
solar masses, which is close to the stability limit of such stars in respect of
the state of matter.
Besides, we can also assume that
over time the matter of many elementary particles undergoes transformation due
to interactions similar to the weak interaction, which leads to decay of these
particles. Hence, due to quantization of various properties of elementary
particles, complexity of their structure and possibility of different types of
interactions, the observed symmetry of hadron properties and their resonant
states can be not the consequence of the existence of quarks but the
consequence of the intrinsic properties’ symmetry of the hadrons’ matter and of
the surrounding fields.
The
phase of hadrons’ matter
The αphase of hadrons’ matter
means the same matter as in a magnetized neutron nucleus and the βphase
corresponds to the matter in the neutron shell, which is oppositely magnetized.
These phases of matter arise from the substantial
neutron model. In this model the magnetic moment of the neutron is composed
of the magnetic moments of the nucleus and shell, while the neutron nucleus and
αphase of matter are positively charged, and the neutron shell and βphase of
matter are negatively charged. The total charge of the neutron is zero, and the
magnetic moment is determined by the negative magnetic moment of the βphase of
matter, which exceeds in the absolute value the magnetic moment of the αphase
of matter due to the large volume of the shell and the increased magnetic flux
in comparison with the nucleus.
Neutron betadecay occurs as a
result of the weak interaction reactions in the neutron matter, the magnetic
field structure transformation and the emission of negative electric charge
from the shell in the form of electron, with transformation of neutron into
proton. In the first approximation we can assume that the magnetic moment P_{β} of the shell changes its sign and becomes
directed the same way as the magnetic moment P_{α}
of the nucleus. Since the sum of magnetic moments of the shell and nucleus
should equal the magnetic moment of the proton and their difference should
equal the neutron magnetic moment, then we can estimate that P_{α} = 0.44 μ, P_{β}
= 2.35 μ, where μ is the nuclear magneton. These magnetic moments reflect the
fact that the change of sign of the internal volume electric charge density
occurs in the middle of the neutron radius. Thus the αphase and βphase in the
neutron matter are oppositely charged and magnetized.
Quarks modeling
In Fedosin’s
model it is assumed that not only nucleons, but all hadrons and hence quarks
can be composed of certain combinations of the two abovementioned matter
phases. The composition of quarks is presented in the Table. ^{[2]}
Quarks’ composition 

Quark 
The share of α–phase 
The share of β–phase 
u 
1/3 
1/3 
d 
1/3 
–2/3 
s 
–2/3 
1/3 
c 
4/3 
–2/3 
b 
4/3 
–5/3 
t 
4/3 
–2/3 
According to the table, the ratio of the matter phases for quark u is: u = α/3
+ β/3, and similarly for quark b: b = 4α/3 – 5β/3. If we assume that the values
α and β correspond to the unit elementary electric charge, then upper quarks u,
c, t will have charges +2/3 and lower quarks d, s, b – respectively –1/3 in the
units of elementary electric charge.
Hadrons
The composition of α and β for
hadrons is obtained by summing α and β composition of the quarks, which are
part of these particles. The following Tables show the α
and β composition of some hadrons.
Baryons’ composition 

Particle 
Massenergy, MeV 
Quark composition 
α , β composition 
p^{+} 
938.272029 
uud 
α 
n^{0} 
939.565360 
udd 
α – β 
Λ^{0} 
1115.683 
[ud]s 
0 

1321.31 
dss 
– α 

3519 
dcc 
3α – 2β 

5774 
dsb 
α – 2β 
Mesons’ composition 

Particle 
Massenergy, MeV 
Quark composition 
α , β composition 
π^{+} 
139.57018 

β 
π^{0} 
134.9766 

0 
K^{+} 
493.677 

α 
K^{0}_{S} 
497.648 

2α – 2β 
K^{0}_{L} 
497.648 

0 
D^{0} 
1864.5 

α – β 

5367.5 

–2α + 2β 

6286 

β 
Υ^{0} 
9460.3 

0 
In tables the hadrons of the type have zero or indefinite matter phase. It means the
absence of uncompensated electric charge in these particles and indicates the
matter state that is not the full α or βphase. It can be assumed that the
matter of these particles is in a mixed state, with α–β or –α + β phases.
Typically, such particles have a much shorter lifetime as compared to particles
with a different matter composition. An example is the decay in which the indefinite matter phase
of particle is
transformed into αphase of proton and (– β)phase of negative pion. Some
neutral hadrons clearly consist of both matter phases, with the composition of
the form α – β, –α + β, 2α – 2β. In charged hadrons the α or βphase of
respective sign prevails. The analysis of known magnetic moments of hadrons
shows that almost in all positively charged particles the magnetic moment is
directed along the spin, while in neutral and negatively charged particles it
is directed against the spin. This is due to the fact that prevailing of one
matter phase over the other leads to prevailing of the charge and magnetic
moment of this phase over the other phase.
Model justification
According to the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter
and SPФ symmetry, the same
scenario of new objects formation is repeated at each level of matter: they
result from accumulation of matter of lower matter levels under the influence
of gravitational and electromagnetic forces, as well as in the decay processes
of the matter of higher matter levels, which occur due to different
interactions. From this point of view, for production of elementary particles
as well as quarks there is no need in the “Big Bang” hypothesis. Thus the
wellknown problem of the observed absence of antimatter in the Universe is
removed, because without the Big Bang there should not be much antimatter. In
the model of quark quasiparticles, quarks are the consequence of the symmetry
of various phases of hadrons’ matter and of the quantum behavior of particles
in their interactions. In particular, in such processes the amount of matter,
energy and momentum, characteristic spin, electric charge, magnetic flux and
other similar quantities are conserved and redistributed. The results of
interactions of elementary particles also depend on the interaction
configuration and the corresponding summation (subtraction) of the vector
physical quantities of particles. In order to move from the formal quark scheme
to real interaction models and to replace quarks as certain particles with
quarks as quasiparticles in the form of combinations of hadrons’ matter phases,
it is necessary to show that for each reaction with hadrons there is a certain
and clear physical mechanism that does not require introduction of a number of
new entities (gluons, massive vector bosons, color charges, mixing angles of
states, etc.) used to describe the observed symmetry of hadrons.
Twoparticle reactions
In some cases particles interact
with each other so closely, that they significantly change their state. For
example, in the chargeexchange reaction of the negative pion , the proton is transformed into the neutron. At
the same time the sum of matter phases remains the same before and after the
reaction, which is equal to α – β. In connection of pion and proton the total
spin does not change, the proton spin is equal to the neutron spin, the spin of
pions are approximately equal to zero. It can be assumed that transformation of
the proton into the neutron occurs due to annihilation of the positive charge
in the proton shell by the negative charge of the pion, followed by
magnetization reversal and charge exchange of the proton shell. The electric
charge of the pion flows into the proton shell under the influence of the
Coulomb force from the positive charge in the center of the proton, which leads
to the charge distribution, typical for the neutron (the center is positively
charged, the shell is negatively charged). This charge configuration is stable,
since the negative charge in the shell repels from itself and therefore does
not recombine with the positive charge in the center of the neutron. During
interaction with the massive proton the pion loses its primary βphase of
matter, is transformed into a neutral pion with zerophase of matter and then
decays into two gammaquanta.
Indefinite or zero matter phase can be understood as the state of hadrons’ matter,
when it has no full ordering of the magnetic moment and the total charge is
equal to zero. The lifetime of a neutral pion is
0.084 fs, converted to the lifetime of a
corresponding star by multiplying by the coefficient of similarity in time П =
6.1•10^{19}, according to the theory of similarity of matter levels, gives
1.4 hours. Among all hadrons, pions have the smallest mass, which is 6.8 times
less than the mass of nucleons. The mass of a neutron star, corresponding to a
negatively charged pion, is about 0.2 solar masses. If such a star would
collide with a magnetar, which is the proton’s analogue at the stellar level,
then in not more than 1.4 hours defragmentation would occur with explosive
ejection of excess matter and strong emission. This occurs due to both the
initial kinetic energy of stars’ motion and release of gravitational and
electromagnetic energy during their combination. In this case charge exchange
and magnetization reversal of the magnetar shell take place, so that the star
as a whole becomes electrically neutral and its magnetic moment changes its
sign. The ejected matter and emission can be directed by the magnetic field of
the star, creating oppositely directed fluxes (jets), starting at the magnetic
poles. This explains the neutral pion’s decay into
two gammaquanta and the short lifetime of this pion.
The energy of the reaction can easily
be estimated quantitatively for the case, when the proton is at rest and the pion’s kinetic energy is low. When pion and proton are
combined, the energy of strong gravitation is released, which can be estimated
by the formula:
where is
the strong gravitational constant,
and are the masses of proton and pion,
respectively, m is the average distance from the
proton’s center to the pion, which is approximately equal to the proton radius.
For the absolute value of the energy it equals MeV in energy units. Part of this
energy is emitted in the form of two gammaquanta with the total energy not
less than the value 134.963 MeV, which is considered the massenergy of a
neutral pion at rest. Hence it follows that in this case the neutral pion is
not an independent particle and it exists as a transitional state of matter on
the surface of a massive hadron.
Another reaction of charge
exchange is the reaction: . In this case, the positive pion produces
magnetic reversal and charge exchange of the neutron shell, turning it into a
proton. At the same time the pion becomes neutral, as described above, and
decays with emission of gammaquanta.
In the interaction of the
gammaquantum with the proton, the pion and the neutron can be produced in the
reaction: . The matter composition in the reaction is
conserved, since the proton consists of αphase matter, the pion
consists of βphase matter, the neutron matter composition is α – β, and the
gammaquantum is considered neutral, with zerophase of matter. The speed of
the gammaquantum equals the speed of light and corresponds to the characteristic speed of the matter
inside the proton. Therefore,
if we select a wavelength of the gammaquantum close to the proton size, then
the quantum energy would be resonantly absorbed by the proton, and the reaction
becomes possible. It follows from the experiment that the reaction
crosssection is m^{2}, and the required
energy of the gammaquantum is about 0.3 GeV in the
laboratory reference frame. If we assume that , then for the proton radius we
obtain the value of 0.8 fm. The estimated wavelength of the quantum is: m. The simplest resonance condition is placing half of the
wavelength on the proton diameter: as for oscillations between two fixed ends. Hence
the determined quantity exceeds not more than 1.15 times the current
radius of the proton.
One of the problems in the
photoproduction of particles is the origin of mass of the newly formed
particles. If we use the formalism of the special relativity, then the particle
mass or the experimentally determined state of the system of particles is a
secondary parameter and is determined with the help of the total energy and
total momentum. In such determination, contributions to the mass are made by
both the energy and momentum, while the question of retaining the matter amount
as a measure of the matter mass is not considered. This follows naturally from
the approach, when we consider only the energy and momenta of the initial and
final states of the particles, without analyzing the transformation of matter
and energy of the particles in the course of their interactions (see the
mass–energy equivalence). Taking into account the strong gravitation allows us
to add into the energy balance equations the terms associated with the total
energy of the particles in the strong gravitational field, and thus to take
into account the law of matter conservation of the particles involved in the
interactions. ^{[5]}
N and Δ baryons
The analysis of reactions with
elementary particles shows that due to the presence of precise models of
particles and their interactions the quark hypothesis becomes unnecessary. This
is most clearly manifested in the formation of baryons N and Δ, with the spin
ħ/2 and 3ħ/2, respectively (ħ is the Dirac constant). These baryons usually
arise from irradiation of nucleons by gammaquanta, from scattering of
electrons and pions in the matter, and are considered
nucleon resonances, i.e. the excited states of nucleons with a short lifetime.
Composition of nucleons coincides with the α,
βcomposition of Nbaryons, as well as of neutral and singly positively charged
Δbaryons. It is noticed that collision of negative pions with the
corresponding energy with nucleons leads mainly to emergence of different
resonances of Ntype, and collisions of nucleons with positive pions mostly
produce resonances of Δtype.
For the formation of resonance Δ_{1}
(1232 MeV), it is necessary that the orbital angular momentum of the pion of
ħsize and the nucleon spin of ħ/2size sum up at the time of the pion’s flying near the nucleon. Although the pion partially
spins up the nucleon and transfers its energy of motion to it, the main part of
the spin of resonance Δ_{1} arises from the orbital angular momentum of
the pion, the velocity of which is almost equal to the speed of light. The
lifetime of the state Δ_{1} is determined by the formula τ = ħ/Γ_{k}, where Γ_{k}
= 118 MeV is the width of the resonance level. Hence we obtain τ = 5.6•10^{–24}
s. Based on the given time and orbital angular momentum we determine the minimum
distance between the centers of the pion and nucleon (0.86•10^{–15} m),
which is close to the nucleon radius. ^{[2]} In
order to estimate the angle θ of the pion’s rotation
near the nucleon, which occurs in time τ under the influence of strong gravitation and
electromagnetic forces, we can write: θ ∙ R_{p}
≈ c ∙ τ, where θ <111º. In experiments on scattering of pions on nucleons
the maxima in differential crosssections are found at scattering angles of the
order 40º .^{[6]} The binding energy of the resonance
is close to zero, due to which it decays quickly into nucleon and pion.
The described pattern is repeated
for the resonance N_{1} (1440 MeV), with the difference that in this
case the orbital angular momentum of the pion and the nucleon spin are directed
oppositely and are subtracted from each other, and the lifetime of the state is
much less and equals 1.5•10^{–24} s. The analysis of other resonances N
and Δ indicates that the peculiarities of their emergence in the processes of pions’ scattering on nucleons can be explained by the
action of different forces: a) between the magnetic moments of the particles;
b) between the spins of the particles; c) the Coulomb force; d) the magnetic
Lorentz force; d) the spinorbit force (the gravitational torsion field from the
spins of particles in the strong gravitational field acts on the moving masses
of particles). The forces differ in different sets of initial particles with
different configurations of interaction. ^{[2]}
If we do not consider a particular interaction model in each case and use the
idea of quarks, then the quarks at the resonances in addition to spins must
have orbital angular momenta, and the resulting particles should be considered
the formal consequence of the symmetry of spatial wave function of the compound
system of quarks. In this case, the spin, orbital and spinorbital interaction
of quarks is considered. Apparently, these interactions of quarks reflect the reality
in such a way, that they correspond to the forces from magnetic moments and
spins of particles, the Coulomb forces, the magnetic and gravitational Lorentz
forces, that occur between hadrons in their interaction.
Strange particles
The analysis of the reactions of
interactions, decays and models of strange hadrons shows that they can
represent a combination of simpler hadrons. ^{[5]}
For example, it is assumed such that Λhyperon
consists of fastrotating near each other and along one axis proton and pion,
which are held by strong gravitation and spin torsion fields. To calculate the
equilibrium condition the equations for the forces and energies are used. Over
time, nucleon and pion slowly approximate, collide
with each other and Λdecay takes place. Similarly, it is shown that Σhyperon is a compound of neutron and pion. Strange
Ξbaryons are more complex structures, containing a proton and two pions. The
composition of Ωbaryons in addition to proton includes three or four pions,
giving the baryon strangeness, which is equal to 3.
Kmesons are likely the compounds
of three pions and have the following compositions:
The difference in the pion
configurations of and leads to the fact that the lifetime of the first kaons
exceeds significantly the lifetime of the second, and to the difference between
the results of the reactions of interaction with other particles. This allows
us to give up the idea of representation of neutral kaons
in the form of quantum superposition of two basic states, accepted in the
standard theory in order to explain the differences between the two types of
neutral kaons, with introduction of the socalled
mixing angles of basic states.
Vector Φmeson with the energy
1019.455 MeV during the lifetime of the order of 1.5•10^{–22} s decays
into two kaons. If we assume that the velocity of kaons is of the order of the speed of light, during the
lifetime of the Φmeson the kaons will cover the way
not more than the length of kaons, composed of three
pions. Then it follows that the shortlived state of Φmeson emerges in close
interaction of two mesons, consisting in total of 6 pions.
There are quite longlived
hadrons, which in addition to a strange quark contain charmed quarks and
beautiful quarks. The examples are the baryon with the energy 2471 MeV and the lifetime of
0.112 ps, and the baryon with the energy of 5792.9 MeV and the lifetime of 1.42 ps. The analysis of
the products of their decay shows that the sums of energies of secondary
particles can be insufficient for them to be in equilibrium state and to
produce a hadron, as it happens in less massive strange hadrons. It could be
concluded that charmed and strange hadrons have additional characteristics –
their states can emerge in collisions of less massive components, when
additional energy is released due to the energy of strong gravitation and
transformation of hadrons’ matter.
Dipion states
Meson resonances emerge in different
processes, for example in photoproduction, in collision of electronpositron
beams, in scattering of pions on nucleons, in annihilation of nucleons, etc.
Some resonances like f and ρ almost always decay into two pions. The lifetime
of these resonances does not exceed 1.6•10^{–23} seconds. ^{[7]} During this time two fastmoving matter masses,
when they collide, can make not more than one revolution around the common
center of mass, and then decay, turning into two relativistic pions (or into
other mesons).
Resonance has the lower limit of the massenergy of
about 400 MeV and zero spin. It can be considered as the result of almost
central collision of two pions, each of which has the kinetic energy of more
than 61 MeV at the velocity more than 0.72 с, where с is the
speed of light. The lifetime of this resonance is little, so that the pions
immediately fly apart with semiflexible scattering.
The spin of ρmeson (775) is
equal to ħ, and it can be understood in the situation, when two colliding pions
during 4.5•10^{–24} seconds closely interact with each other at the
minimum distance 2R, and then scatter in different directions. The total energy
per one pion equals half of the massenergy of ρmeson, i.e. 388 MeV. Hence,
using the relativistic formula, that relates the mass and energy, it is easy to
find the momentum of each pion. At least one of the pions is charged, and the
second is either neutral or oppositely charged, depending on the availability
and the sign of the charge of the ρmeson. The moving pion creates around
itself the field of strong gravitation,
which has the gravitational field
strength and the gravitational torsion field In
case of counter motion of pions, at their velocity of the order of the speed of
light, the force from the torsion field is summed up with the force of
gravitational attraction, doubling the latter one. ^{[3]}
In the first approximation, we can equate the gravitational acceleration and
the centripetal acceleration of particles relative to the center of mass, as
they move close to each other:
where and
are the rest mass and momentum of the pion, is the speed of light as the approximate
velocity of the pion.
From this equality we obtain R =
2•10^{–16} m. On the other hand, for the meson spin we can assume that
ħ = 2 p R, from which R = 2.7•10^{–16 }m. Consequently, the radii of pions
should be greater than R, so that in collision of pions the ρmeson (775) will
be manifested.
Among the mesons there are
particles with large values of spin, for example, If
we assume that the spin of this particle with the size 6 ħ arises from the
interaction of two pions, then the half of the smallest distance R between the centers
of pions will equal 4.7•10^{–16} m. The pion radius will apparently be
even more, as it follows from the calculations, ^{[5] }and
from the experimental crosssections of interactions of pions on each other at
high energies.
Dipion state with the lowest possible energy,
equal to the sum of the rest energies of two pions, is observed in a number of
reactions, such as in kaon decay into three pions or
two pions and leptons. ^{[8]} The coupling between the
positive and negative pions has its special name – pionium.
Since the standard theory has difficulty in explaining the dipion
states, various explanations are suggested, for example, by introducing the
anisotropic component into the strong interaction, due to deformation of the
Minkowski space metric near the particles. ^{[9]} If we
proceed from the idea of strong gravitation, then compound of two pions is as
possible as in the strange particles and atomic nuclei, due to the balance of
the gravitational force and spinspin interaction, arising from the
gravitational torsion fields. ^{[5]}
Baryonium
By definition, baryonium production requires combination of two
quarkantiquark pairs. In annihilation of proton and antiproton we can often
observe meson with quantum numbers (J – spin, P – parity, C – the eigenvalue of
charge conjugation operator). This meson decays into pions or meson pairs of
the type and often it is considered not from
the point of view of quarks, but as weakly bound and decaying state of two
baryons. There are other examples of baryon states, ^{[7]}
such as that decays into and in which decays into pairs are observed. It is known that some massive mesons
can decay not only into mesons, leptons and photons, but also into baryons and antibaryons, where the latter is the state of baryonium.
In some researches, attempts are
made, instead of using the quark model, to describe the hadron states at the
level of simpler hadron constituents. For example, the hyperon
Λ(1405) is considered as a dynamically bound state of
nucleon and kaon, ^{[10]}
and the scalar mesons f(980) and a(980) are considered to be molecule of kaon and antikaon. ^{[11]} Hadron molecules of kaon, antikaon and nucleon are
considered in ^{[12]} by solving the Schrödinger
equation for the wave function of the three particles and by using two
interaction potentials assumed in the model. In ^{[13]}
it is proved that many resonant states N, Δ, Λ, Σ, Ξ, Ω are dynamically bound states of vector mesons
(such as ρ and ω) with baryons, which are part of baryon octet with nucleons
and of decuplet with Δ.
Massive vector bosons
In the quark theory, weak
interaction, including the decays of quarks, is usually limited to production
of intermediate bosons as carriers of interaction. In contrast to massless
photons, in electroweak theory W and Z bosons have large mass, which
corresponds to the expected small radius of their interaction and the Fermi
constant value for weak decays. Boson masses , according to the experiments, are equal
to 80.398 GeV and the mass equals 91.19 GeV.
Intermediate bosons were discovered in collisions of colliding beams of protons
and antiprotons in 1983. They were determined from decay, in which Wboson
decayed into an electron (positron) and an electron neutrino (antineutrino),
and Zboson decayed into an electron and a positron, while leptons had higher
energy and flew in opposite directions. It is believed that at low energies,
the weak interaction is performed by virtual W and Zbosons allowing to describe the interaction formally, but at sufficiently
high energies virtual bosons become real and give symmetrical decays of
leptons.
In the model of quark
quasiparticles there is another explanation for the fact that at high energies
of nucleon and antinucleon collisions such particle
states occur, which are explained as W and Zbosons. Let us move on from
elementary particles to the level of stars and consider collision of two
neutron stars, which are the analogues of nucleons. In a typical neutron star,
the average density kg/m^{3}, the characteristic speed of nucleons m/s, the
characteristic pressure of the star Pa are related by the formula:
To produce intermediate bosons it
is necessary that the energy of a proton and an antiproton in their collisions
were 270 GeV, which is 287 times greater than the
rest energy of proton. In collision of two neutron stars, the kinetic energy of
which is 287 times greater than the binding energy of the star, the dynamic
matter pressure occurs, which is approximately equal to As the pressure
increases, the average matter density increases as well. In the approximation
of uniform nucleon gas, the following relation exists (in SI units) between the
pressure and density of the neutron star: ^{[5]}
From relation (2) it follows that
the dynamic matter pressure corresponds to the density . If we now substitute and in formula (1), we will find that the
velocity of nucleons in the stars becomes equal to the quantity
. This is a consequence of rapid
conversion of the collision kinetic energy into the internal energy of the
stellar matter.
Then, at the level of elementary
particles, production of W and Zbosons in collisions of protons and
antiprotons at corresponding energy is accompanied by the fact that the matter
of these nucleons acquires the velocity equal to . At the same time, the energies and momenta of the matter and emission
become sufficiently close in magnitude, explaining the symmetrical production
of lepton pairs in the form of an electron and a neutrino, an electron and a
positron. For comparison, we can also calculate the velocity, which the test
body should have on the nucleon surface in order to overcome the attraction of
strong gravitation:
This velocity is lower than the
matter velocity , expected in processes with W and
Zbosons. The fact that the velocity of the test body must exceed 2.5 times the
speed of light, in order to be an analogue of the nucleon escape velocity, is
neither contradictory nor paradoxical. Since in the special theory of
relativity everything is measured by the speed of light, there is a problem
with measuring the velocities of objects, which exceed the speed of light. This
problem is avoided by considering the velocities and masses the secondary
physical quantities and finding them by calculating with the help of known
momenta and energies. In this case, the energy and momentum are calculated
using the Lorentz factor
, where the velocity of
objects’ motion is always assumed to be less than the speed of light.
Tquark
and the Higgs boson
The most massive tquark was
discovered in 1995 in experiments at the Tevatron
collider. In collisions of protons and antiprotons with an
energy of 980 GeV per nucleon, the tquark
emerged as a state with the energy 173.1 GeV, in its
decay to bquark and Wboson. The energy 980 GeV
exceeds 1045 times the rest energy of the proton. If using the stellar model we
make calculations of the dynamic pressure in the matter of a neutron star and
estimate as well the maximum mass density using relation (2), from (1) we can
find the effective velocity of the particles of this matter:
Consequently, in collisions of
protons and antiprotons with the energy about 980 GeV
per nucleon, the matter can acquire the velocity of the order of . The ratio of the characteristic speed of
particles in
a neutron star to the speed of light (as the limiting velocity of nucleons in
the stellar matter) is the coefficient of similarity in speed (see the similarity
of matter levels). The same holds for the matter within the nucleons. If
the characteristic speed of the nucleon matter is equal to the speed of light,
then the limiting speed of the particles of this matter is equal to . The obtained above velocity is
sufficiently close to the speed , so that the occurrence of events with
tquarks can indicate the presence of some boundary state of the interaction
between the particles of this matter. ^{[5]} It
is interesting that the energy of the tquark is almost exactly equal to the
sum of energies of W  boson and Z  boson.
With the help of relations, such
as (3), we can estimate the energies required for nucleons in the
centerofmass system, whereby in the nucleon matter the velocity of about would be achieved. We obtain the value 1.4 TeV, so that in the experiments at the Large Hadron
Collider, in which the collision energies are currently up to 2.36 TeV and increase up to 7 TeV in
2015 is planned, after collection of statistic data the events could be found,
in which the nucleon matter starts interacting at the maximum possible speed.
Since 2010 by
the detectors ATLAS and CMS, working at the Large Hadron Collider, recorded
events with the possible appearance of the Higgs boson. This is a neutral scalar boson particle
which has zero spin and positive parity. In 2012, it was announced that the
Higgs boson is found with energies of the order of 125 GeV.
^{[14]}
Tau lepton
Among all leptons the tau lepton
is the most massive, its energy is 1.777 GeV, and the
lifetime is 2.9•10^{–13} s. It was discovered in collisions of
electrons and positrons with energies in the centerofmass system more than
3.54 GeV, when pairs of τ^{+} and τ^{–}
leptons were produced. Tau leptons decay either into a tau leptonneutrino plus
hadrons of pion and rho mesons type, or into a tau leptonneutrino plus muon
(electron) and the muon (electron) antineutrino. ^{[15]}
In order to explain how in
collisions of electrons and positrons, muons and even
pions are produced, the maximum dynamic pressure
reached in the collision zone is considered. Calculation shows that close to
the energy in the centerofmass system of the order of 3.54 GeV, the dynamic pressure of the electron matter becomes
equal to the pressure existing inside muons, so that
from the matter of colliding electrons and positrons the muon matter phase is
formed. ^{[5]} Then, under the influence of
strong gravitation, the muon phase is combined into sufficiently massive
objects such as muons and pions,
observed in the processes, where the states appear that are treated as tau
leptons. Thus, there is no need to use the idea of quarks required for
production of mesons in decays of tau lepton states.
Answers
to questions
Within the model of quark
quasiparticles the problematic issues of the theory of quarks and quantum
chromodynamics are discussed as follows:
1) Why are there exactly three generations
of quarks, which coincides with the number of generations of leptons?
Apparently, this is a coincidence, since there are no other considerations
besides possible, but not proven symmetry between quarks and leptons. On the
other hand, electrons, neutrons and protons are genetically related by the
processes of their production (see the substantial electron model). Muons have their analogues at the level of stars – the
white dwarfs, containing the degenerate matter of electrons and ions. The
analogues of nucleons are neutron stars with degeneration of neutron matter.
Among leptons there is a tau lepton, which can be represented as a state in
which, in collisions of electrons and positrons, muons
are produced. It turns out, that leptons are correlated rather with nucleons
and special matter states inside leptons, than with quarks as some parts of
hadrons. Then the connection between generations of leptons and quarks becomes
accidental.
2) Why are elementary fermions
divided into two types – leptons and quarks? The standard model is extremely
simplified from the point of view of spin distribution of elementary particles
– they are attributed only quantum spin, either halfintegral or multiple of
the Dirac constant ħ, any intermediate spin values are not considered.
According to the substantial electron model, the electron spin must be
understood as a dynamic spin, associated with the change in the orbital angular
momentum of an electron in an atom due to the shift of electron cloud center
from the nucleus. From the calculations in ^{[5]}
the quantum spin of muon is derived from the characteristic speed of muon matter
and is also close to the value ħ/2. This leads to the fact that due to their
spin leptons are fermions.
Quarks are correlated with
fermions and with the minimum spin ħ/2 due to the necessity of building the
spins, observed in hadrons, with the help of the quark spins. However, unlike
leptons as real particles, quarks are quasiparticles due to their properties,
including their unobservability outside hadrons. All
particles can be divided into three classes – leptons, hadrons and field
quanta, while hadrons in the standard theory are considered to consist of
quarks. Besides, it is believed that leptons do not participate in strong
interaction, which differentiates them from quarks. However, from the point of
view of strong gravitation, the matter of both leptons and hadrons participates
similarly in strong interaction, the difference of
field strengths is only quantitative and depends only on the difference in the
mass density, but not on the mass. Therefore, division of the leptons and
quarks can be considered as a formal consequence of introduction of the idea of
quarks.
3) Is the coincidence of the
number of colors and the number of generations accidental? Most likely, this is
an accidental coincidence. The number of colors is determined by the maximum
number of quarks in baryons, which gives new degree of freedom to quarks and at
the same time associates it with the color charge as the source of strong
interaction of quarks. Though the number of generations of leptons and quarks
is the same, but it occurs for different reasons. If the color depends on the
internal symmetry of hadrons, the generations of quarks depend on the level of
interaction energy, so that there is no direct relationship between the number
of colors and the number of generations.
4) Why cannot quark masses be
determined precisely? The quark masses are not determined precisely because
quarks are quasiparticles, not real particles. The properties of quasiparticle
depend strongly on the conditions, in which they are observed, as well as on
the theory used for their introduction and description. For example, the block
mass of quark is considered in the static case, based on the composition of
quarks and gluons inside hadrons. The current mass reflects conversions of
quarks in the dynamic case with change in the number of gluons surrounding quarks, therefore it differs much from the block mass.
5) What is the reason of such a
large spread in the masses of quarks? In the standard theory inequality of
quark masses leads to breaking interactions’ symmetry and to different masses
of hadrons in multiplets. In this case, the cause of
quark masses is assumed to be their interaction with the Higgs bosons. In this
approach, variability of quark masses is unclear. In the theory of quark
quasiparticles, quarks are considered as combinations of the phases of hadrons’
matter, which are present in each hadron in the necessary amount, and the
question of quark masses is replaced with the question of the difference
between hadron masses. In turn, the difference of hadron masses is explained by
the different number of simple hadrons (usually nucleons and pions) involved in
the construction of their states and by the difference of their energy inside a
massive hadron, including the energy of strong gravitation, the gravitational
torsion field and the kinetic energy of motion.
6) What leads to the difference
of quarks’ influence on the properties of hadrons, beside quark masses? In the
standard theory the quarks are divided into up and down, and each type there
has different mass. In addition, quarks have their own internal quantum numbers
that distinguish them from each other (e.g., strangeness, charm, beauty,
truth). It turns out that the difference in the properties of hadrons is
reduced to the mass and properties of their constituent quarks. In this
picture, after transition from the hadron level to the level of quarks, the
question remains – what is the reason for the difference of quarks?
7) What do quarks consist of? The
question of quark matter remains the subject of speculation and discussion so
far. It is assumed that collisions of hadrons at very high energies turn their
matter into the quarkgluon plasma, in which quarks become quasifree.
In the standard model, quarks and gluons belong to the fundamental elementary
particles. Besides, two types of vacuum are introduced, which are specific to
quarks and gluons, the electromagnetic vacuum, as well as the Higgs field that
gives mass to all particles except gluons and photons. These vacuums should
contain virtual pairs, such as quarkantiquark,
gluonantigluon, electronpositron, vector W and Z
bosons, and the Higgs field should contain the Higgs bosons. Quarks and gluons
outside hadrons, as well as W and Z bosons can exist only in transitional
state, immediately turning into hadrons or other particles. Quarks inside
hadrons wear “coats” of gluons and float among the clouds of virtual particles.
It is obvious that in the standard model it is impossible to solve the problem
of quarks’ composition. One of the obstacles is the fact that an unlimited
number of particles with the spin ħ for gluons and ħ/3 for quarks, including
the spins of virtual particles, is admitted in this
model. This obvioulsy contradicts the theory of
Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, in which each object is infinitely
divisible, and the characteristic spin of the matter particles,
that make up the object, is significantly less than the characteristic
spin of the object. Meanwhile, in the standard model it is still considered
possible that the strong interaction of pions with each other is performed by
pions, but the virtual ones. It implies introduction of the idea of
selfclosure of interactions of a number of known elementary particles, without
the need to involve deeper levels of matter, and inevitably leads to inability
to explain the essence of phenomena.
8) What are the sizes of quarks?
In attempts to find quarks in hadrons and to separate them from each other
highenergy particle collisions are used. With increasing of energy, the
particles can penetrate each other more and more, breaking into pieces and then
flying apart. The analysis of secondary particles shows that quarks, if they
exist, behave as point particles. Recent experiments at relativistic ion
collider in Brookhaven have shown that nucleon matter can be heated in collisions
up to 4•10^{12} degrees. In this case, it behaves similarly to a liquid
with very low viscosity, ^{[16]} and not like free gas
of quarks and gluons, predicted by chromodynamics. In contrast to gas, in
liquid there are forces of attraction, and this
attraction property of hadrons’ matter is predicted by strong gravitation. In
the substantial neutron model,
the hadrons’ matter, like the matter of neutron stars, consists not of three
quarks, but of a set of smallest particles (praons), which allows them to
behave like a liquid with low viscosity. From experiments it also follows that
the bunches of oppositely charged particles move opposite to one another from
the collision zone and rotate in opposite directions according to the sign of
their charge, as it happens in a magnetic field. ^{[17]}
This can be explained by the fact that the forces, arising from the torsion
field of strong gravitation, in case of rapid rotation of particles exceed
significantly the electromagnetic forces and can effectively influence the
hadrons’ matter. ^{[2]}
9) If quarks were formed at the
beginning of the Big Bang, why is there practically no antimatter from antiquarks? The problem of the asymmetry of matter and
antimatter production in the Big Bang does not have any reliable solution yet,
as well as the cause of the Big Bang. The fact of the Big Bang itself is
reasonably questioned, because its consequences could perfectly be explained by
other reasons. ^{[18] [2]} Therefore, there is no
answer to the raised question in the standard theory. But if there were no Big
Bang, then the predominance of matter over antimatter can be explained by the
natural course of evolution of matter in space. And according to the theory of
Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, the evolution of matter at any level
is prepared by the evolution of matter at the lower and higher scale levels of
matter. As a result, the matter can accumulate under the influence of
fundamental forces and can break up in the processes with large release of
energy, eventually forming a ladder of space matter levels.
10) During formation of hadrons,
the energy of strong interaction of quarks should be emitted due to combination
of quarks. In what form is this energy emitted and can we discover it? In order
to explain the quarks’ confinement in hadrons in the standard theory the
interaction potential is usually introduced, containing two terms. The first
term has the Coulomb form and can be made positive to ensure the forces of
quarks’ repulsion at very small distances (otherwise quarks would simply
merge). This term should be proportional to the color charges and inversely
proportional to the distance between the quarks. The second term is also
positive and is directly proportional to the distance between the quarks,
raised to some degree, and is responsible for the increase of the force between
the quarks, when they move away from each other. The first term has an ordinary
potential form, and the second term is similar to the energy of spring tension.
It is assumed that the role of a spring is performed by gluon strings between
the quarks. If the quarks in hadron collisions get much energy they fly apart,
and the collision energy is converted into the energy of the gluon strings.
Upon exceeding certain distance and energy density limit these strings get torn
and the gluon energy is converted into quarkantiquark pairs, from which new
hadrons are produced. At the moment of formation of new hadrons the quarks
inevitably get closer and gluon bonds occur between them. If we use the analogy
with springs, in the new hadron we should expect damped oscillations of quarks
with the distance between them changing from minimum to maximum. Then the
question is, where does the energy of these
oscillations eventually go? We can assume that the gluon strings have the
property of viscosity and they take all the excess energy of quarks’ motion.
Thus the system of quarks and gluons with their color charges gets closed on
itself and becomes responsible for all the forces and phenomena. However, a new
question arises about the origin of the color charges themselves, as well as
other similar questions that remain unanswered. The theory of Infinite
Hierarchical Nesting of Matter considers the similarity of matter levels and
the similarity of forces, acting between the objects, regardless of their
sizes. This approach does not require to introduce quarks and to explain their
extraordinary properties. Instead, only fundamental gravitational and
electromagnetic forces are considered and the weak interaction is reduced not
to forces but to the matter transformation. During formation of any objects, in
fundamental fields the binding energy is released in the form of quanta of
these fields. It is assumed that the quanta of the gravitational field
(gravitons) are the neutrinos emitted by particles at different levels of
matter, while neutrinos themselves are treated as some form of photons. ^{[5]}
11) Is there any evolutionary
mechanism for generation of quarks and hadrons consisting of them, which is
associated neither with the Big Bang concept, nor with the emergence from other
highenergy elementary particles at their collisions? In the standard theory
the elementary particles such as nucleons and electrons are formed in the Big Bang,
where first quarkgluon plasma appeared, which decayed into hadrons and
leptons. The drawback of this approach is the analogy with the religious idea
of the world’s creation, besides it remains unclear what had existed before the
Big Bang. According to the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter,
in order to explain the origin of elementary particles there is no need in the
Big Bang, since there is a single evolutionary mechanism for the formation of
any space objects, regardless of their size. In the Universe the fundamental
forces act by the same laws, due to which formation of new objects of disparate
matter can take place. It is assumed that more and more massive bodies are
formed under the action of graviton fluxes within Le Sage's theory of
gravitation. An example is formation of stars from gas clouds. Just like a star
of sufficient mass in the supernova explosion can produce a neutron star, so
the matter bound by the action of strong gravitation can be eventually
transformed into nucleons. Individual objects can also be formed due division
of the system made of a set of associated objects.
12) What is the reason of nonobservability of free quarks? The exact reason is unknown,
but this is one of the proofs of the fact that quarks are not real particles
but quasiparticles.
13) What makes massive quarks
decay to less massive and stable quarks? What determines the characteristic
time of this decay? Since the properties of quarks due to their nonobservability are derived from the properties of hadrons,
then from decay of almost all hadrons (except proton) the need of quarks’ decay
should follow. In the standard theory the quarks are assumed to be real
particles, the basic properties of which, including the instability of quarks
with respect to decay, remain unclear. If we treat quarks as quasiparticles,
then the cause of hadrons’ decays should be looked for not in the quarks, but
in the interactions of simple hadrons, like nucleons and pions, which are part
of many massive hadron states, with each other and in the transformation of the
matter of these simple hadrons, with regard to their electric charges and the
strong gravitational field.
14) What is the relationship
between the gluon field, ensuring strong interaction between quarks, and the
electromagnetic and gravitational fields of quarks? At the level of elementary
particles in the standard theory three types of interaction are usually
considered – strong, weak and electromagnetic. Due to the small mass of quark
their gravitational interaction is neglected. If for the strong interaction of
quarks, including change of their color charge or confinement in a hadron,
gluons are required, then charged Wbosons are
required for the change of quark flavor in the weak decay. Quarks have charge,
decay into other quarks and Wbosons, and participate together with these
bosons in the electromagnetic interaction. Gluons themselves have no electric
charge and are not directly associated with the electromagnetic field, but
nevertheless can produce quarkantiquark pairs, carrying the charge. This is
possible due to the assumption existing in the standard theory that energy is
a) can be converted into mass; b) can exist only in the form of
particleantiparticle. However, the conversion of energy into mass contradicts
to the law of conservation of matter, which is part of the law of conservation
and change of carriers. ^{[19]} On the other
hand, in the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter the strong
interaction is associated mainly with the strong gravitation and the
gravitational torsion fields, but not with the gluon field. In turn,
gravitation, including strong gravitation, as well as weak interaction are explained as a result of electromagnetic radiation at
the lower spatial levels of matter. ^{[5]}
15) How could leptons,
that in the standard theory do not participate in the strong interaction,
produce at their collisions quarks and hadrons, which are the objects of strong
interaction? According to the theory of strong gravitation, it is the basic
part of the strong interaction. In addition, contribution into the strong
interaction is made by the forces from gravitational torsion fields and the
electromagnetic forces, acting between the particles. Just like ordinary
gravitation, the strong gravitation is responsible for the integrity of
elementary particles and the attraction of their matter, regardless of whether
the matter is part of hadrons or leptons (such as electrons and muons). Therefore, strong interaction must exist in
leptons, though in electrons it is much weaker than the electromagnetic
interaction due to the low mass to charge ratio. However, in interaction
between two muons the action of strong gravitetion exceeds the electrical force 23 times, which
leads to similarity of interaction between muons and
between hadrons. Thus in 2005 the dimuonium state
with energy 214.3 MeV, which decays into positive and negative muons, was studied at the research center Fermilab. ^{[20]} As it was
described above for the tau lepton, in collisions of electrons and positrons of
sufficient energy, under action of strong gravitation the muon and pion phases of matter arise from the matter of these
leptons. The high density of matter of muon and pion
phases is achieved due to the energy of collision. At the level of stars, this
corresponds to transition of the planetary matter in collisions with
relativistic velocities into the state of matter of white dwarfs, and then
after merging of white dwarfs into the state of matter of neutron stars.
16) Why do mesons of two quarks
and baryons of three quarks prevail, and not hadrons of an arbitrary number of
quarks? From the point of view of spin symmetry, all particles have either
integer spin (bosons) or halfinteger spin, as fermions. Accordingly, in
interactions of elementary particles either mesons with integer spin or baryons
with halfinteger spin are produced. If we assume that quarks have spin ½, then
two quarks always have an integer spin, and three quarks have halfinteger
spin. Taking into account the orbital angular momenta, which are multiple of an
integer number in units of Dirac constant, does not change the baryon or meson
status of particles. Therefore, in the simplest case it is sufficient to assume
that all mesons are composed of two quarks, and baryons – of three quarks. This
allows us to cover all possible hadrons, and the particles of an arbitrary
number of quarks in the standard theory are simply unnecessary. However, if we
assume that division of particles on the basis of an integer or noninteger
spin is conventional, and that there are hadron states with intermediate values
of spin, then the idea of quarks with halfinteger spin also becomes
conventional. In this case, the desired spin of certain quarks should decrease,
and the possible number of quarks in hadrons should increase. The fact, that
the quark approach to explanation of the composition of mesons and baryons is
simplified, is proved by the states with inconsistent and contradictory quantum
numbers that are periodically found in different mass ranges. One recent
example is production of unaccounted muon jets at the Tevatron
collider in protonantiproton collisions at the total energy of 1.96 GeV. ^{[21]} In collisions with
protons not only unaccounted baryon have been found for a long time, but also
meson states with such energies as 62 MeV, 80 MeV and 100 MeV, etc. ^{[22]}
17) What is the meaning of the
observed exotic hadrons that do not fit into the standard quark scheme due to
the ambiguity of division into quarks? This situation occurs probably due to
the incompleteness of the quark theory that considers the particles as real
systems of two or three quarks. However, if quarks are only quasiparticles,
indirectly reflecting the symmetry of the interaction of particles, many hadron
states, instead of revealing certain symmetry, will give quasisymmetries that
do not comply with the idea of quarks.
For example, there are reports
about the discovery of hadrons, consisting of four or five quarks; besides,
there is assumed the existence of glueballs – the particles, in which the main
role is played not by quarks but by gluons G. ^{[7]}
For example, in experiments with negative pions and protons at energies 18 GeV, mesons π_{1}(1400)
and π_{1}(1600) with quantum numbers J^{PC} = 1^{–+}
were obtained. The analysis of experiments shows that π_{1}(1400)
looks like a fourquark state of the type qqqq, and π_{1}(1600)
is a hybrid of quarks and gluons in the form qqG. The
discovered charged meson Z^{±}(4430) counts in
favor of multiquark states, it could have the structure in the form or
^{[23]}
The baryon resonances – the
candidates for fivequark states (pentaquarks) include Φ(1860) with the level
width less than 18 MeV and possible quark composition Θ^{+}(1540)
with the mass 1533.6 MeV and the level width 0.9 MeV, ^{[24]}
as well as Θ^{0}_{c}(3100) with an estimated quark
composition
The wellknown organization
Particle Data Group has been collecting for a long time the data on the
properties of elementary particles and their annual updates. It has gathered a
significant collection of references to experimental works, according to which
a great number of states of particles is discovered that clearly do not fit
into the standard quark model. ^{[25]}
18) What prevents the virtual
quarks from the quark sea from being combined, like valence quarks, and from
forming new hadrons, thus creating mesons, nucleons and matter? According to
the standard model, quark or gluon that have a color
charge, in case they have excess energy, can transfer this energy to the quark
sea with production of a real quarkantiquark pair. Thus, the process of
formation of matter from energy is admitted. The philosophical contradiction
consists in the fact that energy is a characteristic or a quality of the
matter, which therefore cannot produce matter without involving some other
source of matter. If we assume that virtual particles are the source of matter,
they should have the properties of real matter in order to produce real
particles. In this case, how can this virtual matter be
hidden from observation in the experiment? It is obvious that this question has
no answer, and we can only guess what is the mechanism of
matter conversion from the virtual status into the real one, why the sea of
quarks and antiquarks does not disappear in the
process of selfannihilation or does not spontaneously generate hadrons.
We can avoid contradictions in the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of
Matter, in which instead of the sea of quarks (quark vacuum), gluon vacuum or
electromagnetic vacuum, etc., there are many sources of real matter, each of
which is a level of matter, nested in one another.
19) What is the mechanism that
keeps the quarks and antiquarks of same or different
flavors in some mesons from annihilation? Some hadrons consist of a quark and
an antiquark of the same flavor, for example: η_{c}
with the energy of 2980.5 MeV and the composition of the charmed cquark and cantiquark, and χ_{b} with
the energy of 9859.44 MeV and the composition of the beautiful bquark and bantiquark (see quarkonium). Other
hadrons are assumed to consist of combinations of pairs of quarks and antiquarks of the same flavor, in the form of quantum superpositions of these pairs. Quarkonium
decay to charmonium and bottomium
is considered similarly to the decay of positronium, the bound state of
electron, and its antiparticle – positron, existing until their annihilation.
Due to the absence in the standard theory of clear justification of interaction
between the quarks, taking into account the origin and nature of their color
charges, the problem of annihilation cannot be solved completely.
20) Is there a relationship
between the symmetry of quarks, leading to combining of hadrons in multiplets and supermultiplets,
and the ChewFrautschi families, built on the basis
of the dependence between the spins and the square of the hadron mass? The hadron multiplets include the
particles of approximately equal mass, with equal spin and intrinsic parity,
but with different electrical charges and the internal quantum numbers similar
to strangeness. These multiplets reflect the combinatorics of quark at constant spin of hadrons. If we
consider the hadrons of the same type with their resonance states, then in the
plane “spin – squared mass” we obtain smooth curves. They are approximately
parallel for different types of hadrons, even including mesons and baryons. The
reason of parallel curves, the socalled ChewFrautschi
plots, in the standard theory is unknown, as well as their relationship with
quarks and multiplets. If we analyze the dependences
of the hadron spin on the square of their mass using strong gravitation, then
we find a formula for the slope of the ChewFrautschi
plots, which turns out coinciding with the experimental values. ^{[2]} For the resonances it is shown that their spin
is not associated with the limiting rotation of hadrons as some spheres, but
rather with the orbital angular momentum of the particles, which form the
resonance. Simple multiplets can be understood not as
a consequence of symmetry of udsquarks, but as a
result of combinations of αphase and βphase of hadrons’ matter, that are part
of nucleons and pions, with the property of combining of these particles in
hadron states that are characteristic of strange particles. ^{[5]}
21) How does strong interaction
between the quarks inside hadrons turns into strong interaction between the
quarks of different hadrons, for example in the atomic nucleus? As the model of
interaction of quarks inside hadrons gluon strings are often used which connect
the quarks and do not allow them to leave the hadron. It is believed that the
potential of such an interaction is shortrange. This means that if a quark
from the outside will acquire sufficient energy and fly out of the hadron, then
the energy density of the gluon string at some point will exceed the limit, the
string will be broken with formation of a quarkantiquark pair from gluons,
after that hadronization of all quarks into new
hadrons will take place. The problem with the strong interaction between
hadrons results from the fact that quarks and gluons in the unexcited state do
not leave hadrons because of the color confinement. How then are
gluon connections between quarks of different hadrons established, which
are necessary for the strong interaction between hadrons? In this case, the
standard theory involves the idea of using not gluons, but whole hadrons
(mostly pions) as the field quanta of strong interaction. This idea is not new,
since it repeats the quantum theory, in which electromagnetic interactions
between the charges are performed by photons. The significant difference
however is that the electromagnetic interaction is a priori potential (the work
in the field depends only on the initial and final points, but not on the path
of charge transfer), and the fact that the same holds for the strong
interaction performed by exchange of gluons or hadrons is not proven. In
addition, photons have zero mass, and their range is not restricted, while
pions have significant mass. Since there are no real pions between the
interacting hadrons, it is assumed that the strong interaction is performed by
virtual pions as well as by other hadrons with various degrees of their
contribution to the interaction. From this, we can see that the strong
interaction between hadrons again is reduced to hadrons, so that there is
inadmissible from the point of view of philosophy selfclosure of theory and
the absence of essential explanation of phenomena. The situation changes if we
use the theory of strong gravitation, in which the strong interaction between
hadrons and in the hadrons’ matter occurs by the same laws.
22) Is it possible in the
framework of quantum chromodynamics to derive from the first principles the
description of quarks’ interaction, which leads to confinement? It has not been
done so far, because the first principles for quarks are secondary – they are
derived from the properties of hadrons, but not from the properties of quarks
as such, due to unobservability of quarks. Besides,
in the model of quark quasiparticles the definition of quarks’ interactions
does not have the meaning of primary matter and can be used only for
qualitative estimates of interactions, but not for precise predictions.
23) How do the axisymmetric properties of hadrons with respect to the
preferred direction arise from the discrete symmetry of the quark structure of
hadrons (two quarks inside mesons and three quarks inside baryons)? We will
consider a positive pion, consisting of uquark with the charge (⅔ e) and
dantiquark with the charge (⅓ e), where e is the elementary charge. Block
massenergies of these quarks, based on their content in the nucleon, are
approximately the same and equal to 310 MeV. However, their current
massenergies, manifested in interactions with other hadrons, are different and
much less – about 3 MeV and 5 MeV, respectively. The massenergy of a pion is
equal to 139.567 MeV, which causes the block values of quark masses no more
than 70 MeV. Consequently, it is assumed that gluons should bear the main part
of the hadron mass instead of quarks.
On the other hand, the hadron
spin is determined by the quark spins. Thus, in a pion the quark spins must be
opposite, giving zero spin (on condition there is no orbital motion of quarks).
In this regard, there is a question – how can almost point quarks with low mass
have a spin equal to ħ/2? This spin is so great that even a much more massive
proton, taken in the form of a ball uniformly filled with matter with the
radius 0.87 fm, in case of such spin at the equator, would have the velocity of
matter rotation that reaches the value of 0.26 of the speed of light. For a
quark in this case the equatorial velocity is much greater than the speed of
light, which has no explanation. This situation is similar to the situation
with electron, the spin of which in the framework of quantum mechanics also has
no rational explanation and is only postulated. An alternative solution for the
electron spin is found in the substantial
electron model, similarly we should expect another
solution for the spin of quarks and hadrons. In particular, calculation of the
quantum spin of a pion gives a small but nonzero value, without use of the
concept of quarks. ^{[5]}
As for the quarks’ combination in
hadrons other questions arise. For example, what supports the direction of
quark spins all the time so that their sum gives the hadron spin? Why is it more suitable for the quark spins in the ground state
of a pion to have opposite directions? It can be assumed that there must be
spinspin forces between the quarks that ensure spin orientation in one
direction or another and keep them in this state. However, in a simple model of
gluon exchange between the quarks such forces are not
supposed to exist. Due to the absence of spin, the pion should not have a
magnetic moment. Since both pion quarks have no the same mass and their charges
differ two times, it remains unclear how the spins of these quarks generate
equal and opposite magnetic moments. Moreover, these magnetic moments must have
significant size, which is indicated by the magnetic moment of the proton that
results from three quarks.
Baryons contain not two, but three
quarks, and in contrast to abstract theory, in practice, there is a problem of
determining their location in space relative to each other. For example, inside
a proton quarks must have some combination uud.
Should they be located on the same axis and lie in a plane so that their spins
would be perpendicular to this plane? Or can quarks be moving freely relative
to each other? In the standard model, there no answers to these questions due
to incompleteness of the theory, which follows from the symmetry of hadrons,
but not from their essential model.
24) In collisions of highenergy
particles new quarkantiquark pairs should be formed that are divided and are
included in new hadrons in the processes with multiple production
of particles. How are color quarks (antiquarks)
combined into new particles, so that these particles are always colorless and
the number of quarks in them is such, as is required for mesons and baryons (hadronization problem)? Formally, during formation and
subsequent division of a quarkantiquark pair, the quark (and the antiquark)
can form by means of gluons new quarkantiquark pairs, which then somehow,
according to their color charges, gather together to form hadrons. Hadronization of jets, generated by initial quarks, is
called fragmentation. During fragmentation the color charge of the initial
quark or gluon, when combined with secondary quarks, should become discolored.
This is expected in the theory due to the symmetrical properties of hadrons and
quarks anticipated in them, but there is no single specific mechanism of the
fragmentation phenomenon.
25) Why do hadron states, formed
in different ways but having identical decays, differ from each other in their
energy? Example: a) The resonance Δ (1232), that appears in the scattering of
pions by nucleons and decays into a nucleon and a pion; b) Interaction of a
gammaquantum with the energy of 300 MeV with a stationary proton leads to
formation of a neutron and a pion with invariant energy of the state 1200 MeV;
c) The scattering of protons by protons produces a number of narrow resonances,
such as the 1004 MeV, 1044 MeV, 1094 MeV, 1136 MeV, 1173 MeV, 1210 MeV, 1249
MeV, etc. ^{[26]} In the standard theory the hadron
states are associated with a set of quarks, which have certain quantum states,
regardless of the way of their formation. In this case, the observed difference
in energies requires further explanation and is simulated by various
approximations. If, however, in the energy balance of a hadron state we take
into account not only energy, according to the definition of special theory of
relativity, but also strong gravitation, then due to different contributions to
the energy balance, different ways of hadron production will inevitably cause
different energy states, as it is observed. ^{[5]}
26) How can we understand the
fact that in the standard theory some hadrons should consist not only of a
particular set of two or three valence quarks (and indefinite number of virtual
quarks and gluons), but are considered to be quantum superpositions
of valence quarks, which contain different proportions of combinations of
quarks and hence, on the average, fractional by time number of quarks? The
examples of such hadrons are Λhyperon with the
energy of 1115.68 MeV and neutral Σhyperon with the
energy of 1192.6 MeV, consisting of two triplets of quarks of the form uds ± dus in different states, as
well as neutral pion with the energy of 134.97 MeV and meson η with the energy
of 547.8 MeV, consisting of quarkantiquark pairs
(with u, d, squarks).
This is a consequence of the
quantumwave approach and the use of unitary symmetry for dividing particles
into multiplets, where various combinations of the
wave functions of quarks and their combinations are admitted. If we use a
probabilistic approach, which is generally accepted in quantum mechanics, it
turns out that, for example, some neutral pion, taken at random, can be a
quarkantiquark pair of utype and another similar pion can be a
quarkantiquark pair of dtype. In this case, these pairs of quarks inside
pions should periodically be annihilated, transforming into each other. The
situation for the strange meson η is even more complicated, since the existence
of three quarkantiquark pairs is admitted in it, which are annihilated and transformed
into each other. From a physical point of view, the meaning of superpositions of quark states in some hadrons and their
absence in other hadrons is not clear enough. The specific mechanism of
hypothetical oscillations of quark pairs in mesons and quark triples in
baryons, as well as the proof of the existence of quark superpositions
require complete theoretical justification and experimental confirmation.
Interpretation of the quantum numbers of quarks
Elementary particles have a set
of quantum numbers, some of them are unique to hadrons
and quarks. For example, the baryon number of quarks is equal to ⅓, the baryon
number of baryons is equal to 1, and the baryon number of other particles,
including mesons, is zero. We can assume that central parts of baryons are
responsible for the conservation of baryon number, their nuclei that do not
change or get destroyed in any known reaction, except for annihilation of
baryons and antibaryons. The mass, charge and other
properties of baryon shells change in reactions with baryons, but not the
nuclei. In this case, the nuclei of all baryons consist of the matter of α –
phase, which is inherent in the nuclei of neutron and proton. In the state of α
 phase the matter is maximally ordered by the magnetic fields and
gravitational torsion fields, and therefore it is stable, which leads to
conservation of the baryon number. Mesons do not have stable baryon nuclei, so
that only nucleon nuclei and the total baryon number are conserved in the
interaction with nucleons. In the table above of mesons, for kaon K^{+} the matter composition in the form of α
– phase is indicated. This follows from the theory of quark quasiparticles and
the idea that all quarks can be formally represented as certain combinations of
two phases of hadrons’ matter. However, this is not enough to assign a nonzero
baryon number to a particle. For example, kaons can
be considered as complexes of three pions, each of which and the kaon itself have the baryon number equal to zero.
Isospin quantum number (isotopic spin) I
determines the number 2I +1 of the charge states characteristic of hadrons of
the same type, which are part of the respective isospin
multiplet. Nucleons have I = ½ and two isospin states – the proton and neutron.
The pion
isospin is equal to 1 and corresponds to three charge
states of pions. The interaction of pions with nucleons can give not more than
four charge states, resulting in isospin equal to 3/2
for resonances Δ. By analogy with hadron isospin, reflecting independence of strong interaction from
the charge of particles and the value of their electromagnetic interaction,
weak isospin is also introduced for quarks, which
differentiates three up quarks and three down quarks. This means that
transformations or decays in weak interactions of the quarks of one type are
only possible to the quarks of the other type (up quarks transform into down
and vice versa). Strong and weak isospins were
originally introduced for nucleons and quarks that they consist of. Since the
quark composition of proton is uud, and the quark
composition of neutron is udd, then replacing uquark
by dquark (or vice versa) would change the nucleon of one type to another
nucleon. This shows that weak isospin of quarks is
closely associated with strong isospin of hadrons,
which is similar to a relationship between the parts and the whole. In the substantial neutron model, neutron
betadecay and its transformation into proton results from the transformation
of neutron matter under influence of weak interaction, that is followed by
rearrangement of internal fluxes of electric and magnetic fields. Therefore,
weak isospin underlines the relative independence of
the weak interaction reactions that occur in the hadrons’ matter due to the
strong and electromagnetic interactions in this matter.
The quantum numbers of quarks
associated with their spin and charge are determined entirely by and result
from the quantitative quark composition and the spins of mesons and baryons. As
for the quark masses, they are not determined precisely neither in the quark
model, nor in the model of quark quasiparticles, which gives the properties of
quasiparticles to the quarks. Let us now consider the differences between the
quarks, determined by such a property as flavor. There are four types (flavors)
of quarks: s, c, b, t, which are associated with the quantum numbers of:
strangeness s, charm c, beauty (bottomness) b, truth
(topness) t. For u and dquarks there are no special
quantum numbers, associated with the flavor.
In the model of quark
quasiparticles all quarks and hadrons are expressed as combinations of two
phases of hadrons’ matter. This allows us to get closer to the possible
structure of hadrons’ matter and shows that quarks are the material
representation of symmetry inherent in hadrons and their resonant states. In
particular, the difference between the properties of hadrons can be due to the
fact that they have different amounts of hadrons’ matter in its two states
(αphase and βphase), which can be differently charged and magnetized with
respect to each other and located in different spatial configurations. The
latter is important for strange hadrons, in which there is at least one
squark. As it was shown in the section devoted to strange hadrons, the
presence of squark in a hadron can be interpreted as an indication that this
hadron has quasiequilibrium, spatially separated state, which can be
decomposed into simpler hadrons. The long lifetime of strange particles results
from the way of their production, stability of particles is achieved due to the
strong gravitation and the forces from the gravitational torsion fields of
particles.
The massive charmed and beautiful
hadrons differ from ordinary strange hadrons due to more complex composition of
constituent particles, as well as increased energy of their interaction. The
hadron states with tquarks arising at high energies exist for a short time, so
that tquark has time to decay to a less massive bquark before it becomes part
of some hadron. In a sense, tquark is similar to an intermediate virtual
particle. In the model of quark quasiparticles, tquark is interpreted as
manifestation of such a state of hadrons’ matter, in which the threshold
velocities are achieved, close to the maximum permissible for this matter.
Another quantum characteristic of
quarks, the color charge (color), appeared in order to explain the resonance Δ^{++},
in which three quarks uuu must be in the same state,
contradicting the Pauli exclusion principle for fermions.
Hence we conclude that the maximum number of different color charges should be
the same as the maximum number of valence quarks in a hadron,
that is three quarks (in baryons) and three colors. In contrast to isospin described by the symmetry group SU(2),
rotation in the color space forms the group SU(3). Based on the color charge
the strong interaction of quarks in hadrons is explained, which results from
exchange of colored gluons between quarks, leading to a change in the color
charge and to emerging of attraction forces. However, the idea of force
interaction between quarks by means of exchange of gluons, which resembles a
quantummechanical pattern of interaction between the electric charges by means
of exchange of photons, contradicts to the law of conservation of momentum,
since two bodies, exchanging neutral particles, can only repel.
In addition to the specific
quantum numbers of quarks, in quantum chromodynamics there are a lot of
hypotheses and auxiliary quantities, which are necessary for validation of the
theory and consistency with the experiment. We can mention anticipated
violations of the symmetry of quarks’ interaction due to differences in quark
masses, leading to a large difference in the masses of hadrons in each multiplet, as well as to the idea of superposition of
neutral quarkantiquark pairs to represent the quark structure of some hadrons
(these pairs must annihilate periodically due to the strong interaction,
transforming into each other). To match the theoretical results with the
experiment various mixing angles in wave functions are introduced, a number of
constant coefficients in the terms presumably responsible for certain effects.
Based on the symmetry of color,
the existence of eight colored gluons is postulated, so that they could change
their color charge in exchange with quarks, without changing the quark flavor.
The unique properties of gluons are such that carrying their color charge they
can interact not only with quarks but also with each other, which is
inexplicable, if we assume that gluons are massless wave quanta. In this case,
isn’t it easier to refuse from quarks at all, replacing them with gluons?
Though in this case, the hadron masses would be entirely reduced to the
massenergy of massless gluons and the matter would become merely a
manifestation of the field. Anyway the expected strong interaction of gluons
among themselves is nothing but ultimate absolutization of de Broglie’s idea,
according to which the wave–particle duality of particles is performed. With this
duality the photons, for example, carry energy and momentum and thus they have
the properties of corpuscles as matter particles, but they do not carry an
electrical charge, they are involved in electromagnetic and gravitational
interactions, but not in the strong or weak interaction. The difference of
gluons from corpuscles like quarks consists only in the fact that gluons have
zero rest mass, and eight types of charges. Few physicists believe in the full
wave–particle duality between matter particles and field quanta at the level of
microparticles, assuming that it is valid only in
part, in respect of the de Broglie waves and the formulas for the
energymomentum of the special theory of relativity. Accordingly, the idea of
gluons, which are even closer in their properties to particles, is viewed with
suspicion and skepticism.
Quite unusual is the hypothesis
of color confinement in quarks and gluons, since it is unclear how the color
charge can be both in quarks as matter particles and in massless gluons as the
field quanta. The result is the socalled confinement and the absence of free
quarks and gluons in nature. On the other hand, from the point of view of
experiment, the quarks are point (less than 10^{–18} m) structureless formations inside hadrons, although the
hadrons themselves have a radius of the order of 10^{–15} m. Then what
must the space inside a hadron be filled with and should it be considered as
almost absolutely empty? It is assumed that quarks must be surrounded by clouds
of virtual quarkantiquark pairs, and the same applies to gluons, thus quark
and gluon vacuums are introduced. It turns out that hadrons mostly are filled
with unobserved, obviously virtual particles. This picture clearly contradicts
the Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of
Matter and the theory of similarity
of matter levels, in which each hadron has corresponding analogues at every
level of matter, including the level of stars. In particular, in a neutron star
as the analogue of nucleon we don’t need to search for objects like quarks or
gluons, because the physical structure of stars is fairly well known.
Besides quarks and gluons, in QCD
in order to explain the weak decays of quarks and transformations of their
flavors the massive vector W and Z bosons are required. Although they are
considered as quanta – the carriers of weak interaction, they have nonzero
rest mass, ensuring very short range of weak interaction. Charged vector bosons
can change the electric charge of the quark that emits them to one elementary
charge, as well as change the spin to the quantity ħ. The quark emitting such a
boson changes its flavor and the boson decays into a lepton and a neutrino or
into a quark and an antiquark. Acquiring mass by vector bosons is assumed the
result of violation of the symmetry, which is theoretically considered
electroweak, and all known particles, in principle, should not have mass,
similarly to gluon, except for the hypothetical Higgs boson. But in the real
world the symmetry is spontaneously broken, and leptons, quarks and vector
bosons acquire mass by interacting with the Higgs bosons.
As we can see, in the standard
theory the mass is still reduced to energy and the matter particles – to the
field quanta, assuming the latter to be primary. This postulate contradicts the
philosophical basis of the matter structure and the theory of Infinite
Hierarchical Nesting of Matter. Besides, instead of the standard theory, with
shortrange massive vector bosons, there is another approach to explaining the
weak interaction. According to it, the weak interaction essentially is not a
force interaction, like gravitational or electromagnetic interaction, but the
result of a longterm transformation of the matter of elementary particles. At
the level of stars, this corresponds to phase transitions in the stellar
matter, similar to the transformation of the ordinary star matter into the
matter of white dwarfs and neutron stars, and the inverse transformation of
this matter at the masses of stars, exceeding the limits of the matter
stability in the gravitational field. These transitions are accompanied by the
collapse of stellar objects, ejection of shells and emission of neutrinos,
corresponding to the similar processes in weak decays of elementary particles.
A major role in these phase transitions in the stellar matter is played by
reactions with elementary particles and nuclear reactions with emission of
leptons and neutrinos, as well as breaking of the balance of forces of gravity
and pressure in the matter. Therefore, the weak interaction of hadrons and
leptons can be reduced again to the weak interaction and matter instability,
but at a lower level of elementary particles’ matter. ^{[2]} In this case, the weak interaction is not a
field interaction, so to describe it we actually do not need to introduce any
special field quanta. But if we introduce formally the field quanta of weak
interaction, such as gauge W and Z bosons, then they would have various extraordinary
properties, like mass. Moreover, it becomes necessary to postulate the
electroweak symmetry breaking, as well as to introduce the Higgs mechanism.
The symmetry of hadrons as the cause of the idea of quarks
Since in some cases there are
alternative models to describe the properties of hadrons and there is no need
to involve the idea of quarks, we can assume that quarks are not real particles
inside hadrons, but some quasiparticles, reproducing the physical laws and the
properties of symmetry inherent in hadrons.
In particular, during hadrons
production in reactions of interaction between elementary particles we should
take into account the following factors:
 The
law of conservation of matter, which follows from the law of conservation
and change of carriers. ^{[19]}
 The
law of conservation of massenergy of interacting particles.
 The
law of conservation of momentum.
 The
law of conservation of angular momentum, taking into
account the transformation of linear momentum of particles into
quantized angular momentum of the resultant state, subject to the impact
parameter limited by the particles’ radii.
 The
law of conservation of electric charge.
 Inequivalence of addition and subtraction of
the orbital angular momentum, from the point of view of conversion of
motion energy and rotation into the internal energy of particles, which
leads to differences in resultant states.
 Combinations
of different states of hadrons’ matter of interacting particles, which
depend in turn on the electromagnetic ordering
this matter (magnetic moments, charges, currents in the matter, their
orientation with respect to the spin).
 Possibility
of particles’ combining, just as it occurs in the atomic nucleus.
The additional factors making the
internal structure of hadrons more complicated can be the following:
 superconductive
layers and shells, separating different matter phases from each other or
existing in them;
 electric
currents flowing in the shells and creating additional magnetic moments;
 interaction
between the magnetic moments from different matter phases and from the
currents;
 transfer
of the angular momentum by the magnetic field and the gravitational
torsion field;
 gyromagnetic
and magneticinduction effects in the interaction of particles;
 interaction
of electric charges in the matter of hadrons and between them;
 limiting
and overlimiting rotation, leading to instability with respect to
rotation and to division of resonances into smaller hadrons;
 the matter instability under the influence of strong
gravitation and electromagnetic forces, due to the reactions of strong,
electromagnetic and weak interactions in the matter.
A significant part of hadrons,
discovered in experiments, are the bound states of lowmass hadrons, such as
nucleons and pions. Some of these states can be called dynamically bound,
because the interaction time in them is almost equal to the time of flight of
the particles near each other. The dynamic states include almost all the
resonance states of hadrons. The typical examples are the baryons N and Δ, as a
result of the interaction between nucleons and mesons such as pions and kaons, and the mesons f
and ρ as twopion states. Due to the smallness of electromagnetic interaction
in comparison to strong interaction, the symmetry with respect to the charge of
identical hadrons is manifested in the form of isotopic invariance (isospin).
Another symmetry associated with
the independence of weak interaction in the hadrons’ matter from strong
interaction (forming hadrons under the influence of strong gravitation) and
electromagnetic interaction (giving charges and magnetic moments to hadrons),
is reflected in the concept of the weak isospin of
quarks. The special properties of hadrons also include quantization of their
properties and discreteness of their states. As a rule, quantization and
discreteness follow from the way of hadrons production, the behavior of their
matter in the fundamental physical fields. A typical example is neutron stars,
which are the analogues of nucleons at the stellar level of matter. The method
of formation of neutron stars and the equation for the state of their matter
are such that the masses of the majority of these stars fall within a narrow
range of acceptable values. The same applies to the formation and evolution of
nucleons, which are the basis of matter observed in the Universe.
From the stated above it is clear
that considering quarks and hadrons as some compositions of hadrons’ matter in
αphase and βphase helps to understand phenomenologically different
characteristics of elementary particles. The formal substitution of six quarks
with two new entities, the matter phases, implies the possibility of further
simplification of the theory of hadron structure, generally based on the idea
of symmetry of particle interactions and involving the methods of quantum
mechanics. In hadron interactions, the matter phases
are transformed into each other, so that quarks as compositions of phases are
not selfsufficient and therefore unobservable as individual particles. This
assigns to the quarks the physical meaning of quasiparticles that do not exist
outside of elementary particles. In this case, the theory of confinement loses
its sense, since in it unobservability of free quarks
is explained by the fact that separation of quarks requires large amount of
energy. Another consequence is that the methodology of study of elementary
particles needs revision. For example, we need not mathematicaldescriptive
theories of particles’ structure and interaction, but real essentialmaterial
models, including the origin and evolution of particles in a single process of
the world evolution. Such models can be presented in the framework of the
theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter.
See also
 Substantial
neutron model
 Substantial proton model
 Substantial
electron model
 Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of
Matter
 Similarity of matter levels
 SPФ symmetry
 Strong gravitation
 Gravitational model of strong
interaction
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External links
Source:
http://sergf.ru/mkken.htm