Sergey Fedosin. The physical theories and infinite hierarchical nesting of matter, Volume 2. – LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, pages: 420, ISBN-13: 978-3-659-71511-2. (2015).
As we see from the title of this book it is devoted to the influence of the theory of infinite hierarchical nesting of matter on the development of other physical theories. We shall remind you that the theory of infinite hierarchical nesting of matter and matter’s composition of smaller particles differs significantly from the currently prevailing point of view that elementary particles are composed of identical objects in the form of virtual elementary objects or indivisible quarks or gluons. The range of problems studied in this book appeared to be really wide. In this work we find a model of bead lightning; the application of the idea of quantization to the planetary system evolution; description of the hypothesis of new particles as the cause of the redshift of distant galaxies spectrum and microwave electromagnetic background radiation; the proof of Newton’s law of universal gravitation in graviton’s concept; description of substance evolution and transformation under weak interaction reactions; electromagnetic models of nucleons and neutron stars; presentation of quarks as quasi-particles composed of different phases of hadron substance; decomposition of neutrino and similar particles of one matter level to fluxes of similar particles of a deeper matter level; bringing the action of electromagnetic forces among the charged bodies to the interaction of numerous minute charged particles of the lower level matter between the bodies; the structure of the deuterium and some other atomic nuclei; calculation of the position of electrons in the helium atom; explanation of the electron spin and Pauli principle; the model of magnetic field origination in massive objects due to charge separation and rotation; the hypothesis of origination of high energy cosmic rays in the electric field of magnetars; calculation of metric in linearly accelerated reference frame which allowed to estimate in a new way the time of ageing in twin paradox; derivation of thermodynamic quantities, including entropy, in Lorentz-invariant tensor functions etc.
Along with presenting substantial models of nucleons, mesons and leptons, S. G. Fedosin gives description of electromagnetic and gravitational forces responsible for the integrity of elementary particles, atomic nuclei and atoms. On the basis of his previous works he proves the necessity of existing of the so called strong gravitation as the basic constituent of nuclear forces. And the stability of the atomic nuclei is determined by the approximate equality of the gravitational attraction force and the force of repulsion from the gravitational torsion field which is the second component of the gravitational field (in the electromagnetism similarly there are intensities of electric and magnetic fields as of the two components of an electromagnetic field).
Then S. G. Fedosin comes to the need of axiomatization of the theories of electromagnetic and gravitational field and also of the relativity theory. It allows him to describe the connection of each field with the substance while the substance is not only the source of the field but it also is subjected to the action of forces from the field. In the paragraph about the calibration function in the relativity theory S. G. Fedosin demonstrates that not only motion but any field affecting bodies can change, by means of its intensities and potentials, such intrinsic properties of bodies as time flow, phase shifts among the similar processes in bodies inside the field or without a field.
It is known long ago that Newton gravitational theory is not complete as it is not Lorentz-invariant and does not satisfy the requirements of the special relativity theory. S. G. Fedosin presented the complete description of Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation (LITG) in his first book “Physics and philosophy of similarity from preons to metagalaxies” published in 1999. In fact the basic equations of gravitational field we can find in Heaviside’s articles dated to the late 19th century but further development of LITG was stopped due to appearance and rapid enough recognition of the general theory of relativity (GTR) as geometrical gravitation theory. Within a weak field GTR and LITG equations coincide what proves the validity of LITG in this case.
As an alternative to the special relativity theory S. G. Fedosin suggests the extended special theory of relativity (ESTR). As a result of replacement of the basic postulates ESTR does not only lead to the standard relations of the special relativity theory but also demonstrates that the constancy of light speed in all inertial reference frames is the consequence of the procedure of spacetime measurements by means of electromagnetic wave.
In the analysis of GTR S.G. Fedosin examines two sides of it. The first concerns the relativity theory, as such, i.e. the transformation of time coordinates and the physical quantities of one reference frame to another. This part of GTR, including the special theory of relativity, S.G. Fedosin axiomatically generalizes with the help of ESTR to the metric theory of relativity (MTR). The other part GTR is connected with the fact that GTR is considered also as a theory of the gravitational field. To replace this part of the GTR, S.G. Fedosin uses LITG, expressing it in a covariant form, suitable for all reference frames. As a result, taking into account MTR it comes to the covariant theory of gravitation (CTG) as an alternative to GTR. One of the sections of the book is entirely devoted to comparing CTG with modern gravity experiments. Interesting results of CTG include: the interpretation of the anomalous effect of "Pioneers", the emergence of differentiating equations of motion of particles and wave quanta in a gravitational field (as opposed to GTR), the rejection of the concept of a unified spacetime and its equal curvature regardless of the properties of test particles or waves; presenting gravitation as a real physical force. This leads to reconsideration of the role and the nature of the equivalence principle used in GTR on a par with the idea of the expected Lorentz invariance of reference frames falling freely in a gravitational field. An additional reason for this is the difference between gravitational and inert mass-energy of the gravitational field found in the LITG.
The reader will notice that almost every paragraph of the book is not a repetition of familiar old truths, but they focus on searching for some significant link, missing in the basic provisions of the standard theory. Really, in the recent time we can hardly see any substantial progress neither in the theory of gravitation, nor in its quantum generalization. Many questions appear when we discover an increasing number of elementary particles that do not fit into the theory of quarks and gluons. Substantial models of elementary particles are practically absent, there are difficulties with the theoretical basis of the standard theory. In this regard, the emergence of new and well-founded theories of physics are to be welcomed.
Associate professor of The Perm State University,
Ph.D. in Physics and Mathematics,
The book "The physical theories and infinite hierarchical nesting of matter" is a capital scientific work which contains a wealth of material on physical theories, the foundations of which were until now presented in numerous scientific papers. In the book mainly studies the special theory of relativity (STR) and the general theory of relativity (GTR), also the theory of gravitational and electromagnetic fields, the theory of elementary particles, as well as various associated physical models from the point of view of the theory of infinite hierarchical nesting of matter. When each of the above-mentioned physical theories appeared it was applied in the first place for ideal situations in which the results can be obtained in analytical form. This is natural, taking into account the incompleteness of the set of elementary particles known at that time, the denial of the existence of ether, the simplified understanding of the field theory and the structure of matter, a limited set of mathematical methods. Although these theories have provided theorists and experimentalists with new information about the surrounding world, but nowadays it is no longer sufficient. Besides, so far these theories have not provided complete understanding of the philosophical and cognitive issues, including the relationship of man and the theory and experiment.
After a deep analysis of the nature of the theories described the author of the book makes the following step: he takes the reader from STR and GTR to the extended special theory of relativity (ESTR) and the metric theory of relativity (MTR), and then to the Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation (LITG) and its generalization for any reference frame – the covariant theory of gravitation (CTG). In contrast to STR, in ESTR it turns out that the principle of constancy of the speed of light in all inertial reference frames is conventional and follows from the procedure of spacetime measurements by means of electromagnetic waves when the wave must pass a closed path in space. The author provides axiomatization of ESTR, MTR, LITG, electrodynamics and theory of substance, using the language of 4-vectors and tensors. Combining the MTR and LITG on the covariant basis in the pseudo-Riemannian space leads to the equations of CTG. The book analyzed the problem of obtaining and solving the covariant equations of motion of test particles in GTR and CTG, the exact solutions were obtained for the metric, taking into account the contribution of the energy-momentum of the gravitational field, moreover a previously unknown metric was found within the uniformly accelerated reference frame. If GTR contains only the equations for the metrics and the equations of motion, the CTG also includes gravitational field equations. With their help, it becomes possible to present the stress-energy tensor of gravitational field and take into account the gravitational force in the equations of motion. This solves one of the main problems of GTR – the impossibility of presenting the energy-momentum of the gravitational field in the form of such a tensor. The author showed how with the help of relativistic covariant equations of motion for bodies and particles we can describe the reactive force, which in the classical theory is described by the well-known Meshcherskiy’s formula. Compatibility of the CTG formulas with the results of gravitational experiments indicates the appearance of new, alternative gravitation theory, which among others explains the effect of "Pioneers" is a mystery in GTR.
The author has made an important contribution into the theory of elementary particles: he introduced the concept of new particles, and used a multi-dimensional large-scale structure of matter, in which the interaction of new and other well-known elementary particles with gravitational and electromagnetic fields takes place. The new particles become the basis of dark matter, convert radiation of distant objects into the isotropic microwave background radiation, and the redshift of distant galaxies can be explained by the loss of photon energy by these particles. One of the conclusions made is the absence of the supposed expansion of the universe. The author examined the internal electromagnetic and gravitational structure of the neutrons, protons and electrons, described the evolution of the substance of these particles and their interaction, and presented quarks as quasi-particles consisting of different phases of nucleonic substance. This led to the expression of nuclear forces with the help of formulas for strong gravitation and electromagnetic forces, and to clarification of the nature of weak interaction as the result of transformation of elementary particles’ substance in the relevant reactions. As regards the electron it was proved that it has no static spin – its spin has a dynamical origin and disappears when the electron is in a stationary state. The author comes to this conclusion after a thorough review of the known facts about the spin of the electron.
The concept of gravitons in the framework of Le sage’s theory of gravitation allowed the author to derive Newton’s law of gravitation and to show that the gravitational acceleration of bodies takes place under the influence of pervasive gravitons’ flows. The described approach sustains the reality of gravitational force in LITG and CTG, in contrast to GTR, where gravitation arises merely from the curvature of spacetime. The nature of the inertia of bodies’ phenomenon becomes clear, which appears as a reaction to the acceleration of bodies relative to the flow of gravitons.
In the universe a continuous formation of the various particles and field’s quanta, such as nucleons, electrons, and gravitons, is taking place. In author’s opinion, compact material objects, like stars, on each scale level of matter generate flows of gravitons in the form of photons, neutrinos, and relativistic particles. In their turn, flows of gravitons due to the shielding effect compress the fractured matter, forming new compact objects. So the substance and the field’s particles in the form of gravitons mutually generate each other. The author uses the concept of graviton ether to describe the transfer of quanta of electromagnetic and gravitational fields (photons) as gravitons’ flows modulated by the substance.
The interpretation of the calibration function for the potentials of the gravitational field is of interest, which is part of the action function, formed by the integration of the Lagrangian function. As a rule, the action function sets the equations of motion after variation by its variables, showing the external change in spacetime of substance and field’s particles. Now it becomes clear that any change of the function in the system relative to the identical control system causes deviation of the intrinsic properties of the system, for example, the speed of time flow, the values of stresses and pressures, temperature, etc.
We should mention the original model of magnetic field emergence in cosmic bodies, at the example of the Earth and the Sun, as well as presenting the laws of thermodynamics with the help of Lorentz-invariant 4-vectors and tensors. Relativization of the equations of thermodynamics is equivalent in its meaning to the transition from the classical Newtonian mechanics to relativistic mechanics. The result is a new understanding of the nature of the chemical potential, the amount of heat and also the entropy, which is, like other features of the system, now expressed through the tensor functions depending on the density, the charge, and the internal pressure of the substance, its speed, and the field strengths.
The book "The physical theories and infinite hierarchical nesting of matter" by Fedosin S.G. is of great importance for physics, since it stated in a clear and accessible way the essence of a number of well-known and new physical theories that concern scientists today. Moreover the book has great practical value as a textbook, allowing students and teachers to learn the scientific issues raised in it.
Associate professor of The Perm State Pedagogical
University, PhD in Technical Sciences