**Substantial photon model** is a theoretical
model, which considers the origin, structure, state of matter, and other
properties of the photon. To support the substantial model of the photon, the
equations of classical electromagnetism and quantum mechanics are used, as well
as Infinite Hierarchical
Nesting of Matter, __electrogravitational vacuum__ and strong gravitation.

**Contents**

- 1 Photon
formation
- 2 Photon
structure
- 3 Photon
properties
- 4 Mass
- 5 References
- 6 See
also
- 7 External
links

**Photon**** formation**

The cross section of a photon propagating along the axis . The positive charge near the axis is indicated with +, the negative charges of
the lobes are indicated with – . The rotation
of the photon matter leads to a helical spatial configuration.

In the model under consideration, a photon emitted from an atom during
quantum transition is formed under the action of the atom’s electromagnetic
field from relativistic __praons__, which are
constituents of the dynamic electrogravitational vacuum. ^{[1]} ^{[2]}
The properties of praons, including their mass and charge, are derived in the
framework of the theory of Infinite
Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, taking into account the similarity of matter levels. The praon
level of matter is related to the nucleon level of matter in the same way as
nucleons are related to stars. This means that all hadrons and leptons of the
nucleon level of matter, as well as photons, consist of praons in one or
another of their states. The praonic structure of the proton and neutron is
described in the articles __substantial
proton model__ and __substantial neutron model__.

According to the __substantial
model__, an electron in the atom represents a disk-shaped object. The electron
spin appears when the center of the disk is shifted relative to the atomic
nucleus and revolves around the nucleus, in this case a photon is emitted from
the atom. In the first approximation, the entire disk is replaced by a point
electron located at the center of the disk and revolving around the nucleus.
This allows us to calculate the electric and magnetic fields of the revolving
electron in the near, far, and wave zones for a hydrogen-like atom. These
fields act on the relativistic praons of the vacuum, that pass through the
electron disk, and cause them to form the rotating helical structure of the
photon. So an internal periodic wave structure is
formed inside the photon.

The analysis shows that in the course of emission of a photon, the current
revolution frequency of the electron disk and, accordingly, the frequency of
the wave inside the forming part of the photon are changing constantly and are
equal to each other, reaching a maximum near the lowest energy level. In this
case, the photon frequency, found with the help of the photon energy and the
Planck constant, turns out to be equal to the average revolution frequency of
the electron disk over the entire time of the photon emission.

The photon is emitted along the axis of the electron disk, but some part of
the energy in the form of electromagnetic emission leaves the excited atom in
other directions. This emission is in phase with the oscillations inside the
photon. The latter can explain the results of the Young's interference experiment
with low light intensity, when interference between single photons is observed.
In this case, each photon passes through a particular slit and the coherent
emission from the atom, associated with it, passes through another slit, which
as a result gives the interference pattern.

The photon represents a complex lobe structure and has the shape of a long
and thin rotating cylinder, the central part of which contains the prevailing
positive charge, and the surface part is negatively charged. It is assumed that
the strong gravitation acts at the
praon level of matter, while the gravitational constant reaches the value m^{3}•s^{–2}•kg^{–1},
which can be obtained from the strong gravitational constant using the
similarity relations. In gravitational field with this large gravitational
constant, the praons of the photon can form sufficiently rigid structure, so
that the photon could fly large cosmic distances without decaying.

In gravitational model of strong interaction, the strong
interaction between particles appears as a result of summation of
electromagnetic forces, strong gravitation and forces from the gravitational
torsion field. The main components are the gravitational attraction force and the
spin-spin repulsion force. When the distances between the particles are smaller
than the nucleon radius, the balance of forces and formation of such composite
objects, as atomic nuclei and neutron stars, are possible. ^{[3]} Thus,
the praons in photon matter have such proper spin rotation, that the resulting
torsion field creates the pressure, which counteracts the action of strong
gravitation.

**Photon structure**

__Praons__ have a charge of the order
of C, an invariant mass of kg, and to describe their motion at
relativistic speeds, one should use the Lorentz factor, which reaches the
value . Such Lorentz factor was found for praons
inside a photon with the wavelength m and the angular frequency s^{–1}, which emerges in the hydrogen
atom at the transition of the electron from the second to the first level in
the Lyman series. ^{[1]} This allows us to turn with the help of
Lorentz transformations to the reference frame , co-moving
with photon, to determine the components of the electromagnetic field and the
field of strong gravitation, and to understand motion of praons from the
standpoint of a fixed photon. ^{[2]}

In the reference frame ,
moving with the photon along the of laboratory reference system , the role of the angular velocity of rotation
of the praons in the planes is played by the quantity

where is the photon speed almost equal to the speed
of light .

The angular velocity is less than the angular velocity of
rotation of the electron in the atom and the angular
frequency of the photon in , due to the time dilation effect. At the same
time, in the wavelength of the photon is equal to ,
and in it becomes larger and equals to

which is due to the effect of reduction of the longitudinal dimensions of the
moving bodies in .

In case of instantaneous motion of the observer along the axis in with changing of there is a displacement of the rotation phase
by the value

Thus, in the proper reference frame the photon represents a slowly rotating
helical structure with the pitch of the right screw along the axis being equal to . In the laboratory reference frame the pitch of the photon’s helical structure
is equal to the photon’s wavelength .
This leads to the wave pattern of motion of the photon’s matter and,
consequently, to the wave electromagnetic field from rotation of the electric
charge distributed in the photon’s lobes. In this case the photon has circular
polarization.

**Photon properties**

Inside each lobe of the photon there should be sufficiently smooth
distribution of the charge, from the positive charge at the center – to the
prevalence of the negative charge at the edges of the lobes. This should also
be accompanied by smooth change of the mass density along the lobes. In this
case, the lobes contain not only the negative praons but also a significant
number of positive praons, ensuring the electroneutrality of the photon. In
this case, the positive praons are matched with protons, the negative praons (praelectrons) with
electrons, and neutral praons are the analogues of neutrons.

With the help of the Lorentz transformations, we can recalculate the
electromagnetic field components from the photon’s reference frame into the laboratory reference frame . If some lobe in the photon at a given time
point is directed along the axis , then the electric field appears in this lobe. In addition, due to the
photon’s motion at the velocity , the magnetic field appears in this lobe This allows us to understand for the photon
the relation between the transverse components of the electric and magnetic
fields, connected by a coefficient in the form of the speed of light.

The relation between the centripetal force, required to rotate the particle
on the surface of a photon, and the electric force, exerted on the particle
with the charge and the rest mass , is as follows:

here is, in the first approximation, a certain
averaged electric field inside the photon’s lobes from the viewpoint of the
laboratory reference frame , is the transverse radius of the photon , is the particle’s velocity on the photon
surface, is the Lorentz factor of the photon’s motion
in general. The emergence of is due to the fact that practically the velocity
of the photon’s particles is close to the speed of light and is perpendicular
to the centripetal acceleration from the electric force that causes the
particles to rotate.

For the photon, it is assumed that half of its energy is the energy of the particles’ rotation, and
the other half of its energy is the total energy of all the fields. Besides, in
the reference frame the angular momentum of the photon is equal
to the Dirac constant and is given by a formula, which corresponds to a
rotating cylinder composed of particles:

As a result, the rotation energy can be estimated as half the photon
energy:

Dividing the photon energy by the photon volume, we obtain the energy
density, which can be equated to the double density of the electromagnetic
energy inside the photon:

Hence, with the known values for the photon’s angular frequency s^{–1},
with the photon radius , where is the Bohr radius, the photon emission
time s, the __electric constant__
, the average electric field inside the photon is found. Substituting into the equation of rotation of the charged
particle gives:

C/kg.

If we substitute the charge and mass of the praon instead of and ,
we can estimate the Lorentz factor for the photon: . The highest value of the photon is expected in the hydrogen-like
atom, which has the nucleus with the largest number of protons, and in electron
transitions near the smallest orbits. In this case the largest fields of the
atom influence the praons of the emerging photon and transfer their energy to them.

The calculation shows that ratio of the fluxes of gravitational and
electromagnetic energies in the photon turns out to be equal to the ratio of
the proton mass to the electron mass. An estimate of the longitudinal magnetic
field inside the photon under consideration gives the value T. This means that in the laboratory reference
frame the magnetic dipole moment of the photon
equals A • m^{2}. Comparison with the Bohr
magneton shows that for this photon .

**Mass**

In the special theory of relativity there is a well-known formula,
connecting the relativistic energy ,
momentum and invariant mass (the rest mass) of a particle:

As a rule, it is believed that the rest mass of the photon is zero, , and then the photon energy depends only on
its momentum: The latter ratio allows us to find the
photon’s momentum using the energy or angular frequency of the photon. In this
case the photon must move at the speed of light
.

In the substantial model, the photon energy characterizes
the rotational energy of the photon’s particles and the energy of the fields
inside the photon from the viewpoint of the laboratory reference frame .
However, the photon still moves at the velocity , which is very close to the speed of light,
due to which the relativistic energy of all the photon’s particles reaches the
value . This energy is much greater than ,
because the following relation holds true: By the order of magnitude, the difference
between the energies and is about tens
of thousands and more.

The invariant photon mass, which is understood as the invariant mass of the
praons that make up the photon, turns out to be equal to the value For the photon under consideration J or 10.2 eV,
J or 170 keV,
kg or eV/с^{2} in energy units. It turns out
that the rest mass of the photon’s particles
is not equal to zero, though it is quite low.
As a result for the photon one can write:

here is the total momentum of the photon
particles. As an estimate of the number of praons in the photon, emitted by the
hydrogen atom, there is a relation: praons.

The energy is not transferred to the praons from the
electrons in the photon emission from the atom, but they had this energy at the
time of interaction of the praons’ fluxes with the electron. Despite the fact
that the rest mass of the photon particles is big enough, it
cannot be directly found in experiments. This is due to the fact that during
interaction of the photon with the matter, the photon’s angular momentum of the
order of is transferred to the matter, as well as the
corresponding energy and momentum. However, the main part of the photon energy,
involved in the relativistic motion of praons, is carried away with them at the
moment of the photon decay and its scattering into separate praons.

It can be assumed that the velocities
of the fluxes of praons in the vacuum field
are of the order of the speed of light, . At the same time, the photons are moving at
the velocity , and
we should have .
Some difference between and is explained by the fact that the praons in
the photon do not only move along the axis
,
which is perpendicular to the plane of the electron disk at the moment of the
photon emission, but they also rotate around this axis by some spirals.
Rotation of the praons depends on the photon frequency and energy, which should
influence the velocity of the photons and lead to some initial velocity dispersion
of the photons of different frequencies. In the article,^{[4]}
assuming a non-zero photon mass, the modeling used in atomic spectroscopy for
the line shapes and their intensities was considered. It was concluded that
massive photons should have velocity dispersion, as well as possible
longitudinal polarization state.

It is convenient to assume that the speed of light is the limiting value
for the motion of photons and particles. In transition to the lower levels of
matter (to nucleons, praons, etc.) the Lorentz factor increases in the
particles that make up the photons of the respective matter level, while their
velocities must not exceed the speed of light. Thus
the theory of relativity is applied in the theory of infinite nesting of
particles.

It is known that the photon in the form of a gamma-quantum, with the energy
exceeding
twice the rest energy of an electron, when interacting with an atomic nucleus
or a heavy charged particle can create an electron-positron pair in the process
of pair production. Since photons, hadrons and leptons are assumed to be
composed of praons and contain particles with charges of different signs, the
matter and energy of the photon can be transformed into the matter and energy
of a pair of oppositely charged particles. The charge separation in the
photon’s matter can occur due to the action of the strong electric and magnetic
fields near the nucleons.

Being the particles of electrogravitational vacuum, relativistic praons
permeate the matter and act on the matter’s charged particles according to the
modernized Le Sage’s theory, so that an electric force emerges between the
charges and Coulomb’s law becomes valid. ^{[5]} ^{[1]} Thus,
the concept of praons allows us not only to understand the photon structure and
to find its mass, but also to give a general explanation of the main
electromagnetic phenomena.

**References**

^{1.0}^{1.1}^{1.2}Fedosin S.G. The charged component of the vacuum field as the source of electric force in the modernized Le Sage’s model. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 971-1020 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v8i3.18, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.845357.^{2.0}^{2.1}Fedosin S.G. The substantial model of the photon. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 411-467 (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i1.25.- Sergey
Fedosin, The
physical theories and infinite hierarchical nesting of matter, Volume
1, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, pages: 580,
ISBN 978-3-659-57301-9. (2014).
- Joël Rosato. Retaining
hypothetical photon mass in atomic spectroscopy models. The European
Physical Journal D. Vol. 73, art. 7 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2018-90427-9.
- Fedosin
S.G. The Force Vacuum
Field as an Alternative to the Ether and Quantum Vacuum. WSEAS
Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, ISSN / E-ISSN:
1991‒8747 / 2224‒3429, Volume 10, Art. #3, pp. 31-38 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.888979.

**See**** also**

__Substantial electron model__- Substantial
neutron model
__Substantial proton model__- Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter
- Similarity of matter levels
__SPФ symmetry__- Strong
gravitation
- Gravitational
model of strong interaction
__Model of quark quasiparticles____Nuon____Praon____Electrogravitational vacuum__

**External**** links**

Source:
http://sergf.ru/sphen.htm