Cognition and physical reality (Russian Journal), 2004, Vol. 9, No. 2, P. 34 – 42.

Problems of fundamental physics and possible ways of
their solution

S.G. Fedosin

E-mail: intelli@list.ru

In the
development of any subject it is always possible to trace phases of
reorganization marked by the change of structure, the so-called revolutions,
and more or less quiet evolutionary phases taking place without any dramatic
moves. The development of separate sciences about nature, along with natural
science as a whole, is no exception. In the latter case there is a periodic
change not only of fundamental theories, but also of the paradigms, which in
separate sciences predetermine an opportunity of reorganization itself. At what
stage is the development of modern natural science now? Can it be described as
an evolutionary process or are we on the point of another scientific revolution
in the near future? Let’s try to answer these questions through the analysis of
the most fundamental theoretical developments in physics; pointing out contradictions inherent in them we will be able to draw the
appropriate conclusions. The majority of new and alternative models represented
here still demand completion, but without them it is already impossible to
imagine further development of science.

Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is aimed at the description of
events in moving coordinate systems, predetermined by the course of these
events in motionless coordinate systems, in which we can repeat the same
experiments in laboratory conditions many times. As soon as the observer starts
moving about the objects of research, there is a deviation of a seen picture of
the phenomena from the static case – for example, there appears
non-simultaneity of previously simultaneous events. All effects of this kind
are very accurately described by the STR formulae, received on the basis of the
following postulates:

1.
Low-mass bodies are under consideration, so the force of their gravitation
towards each other can be neglected. External influences and fields should be
either small or compensated.

2. The
principle of relativity is as follows: if the observer and his experimental
system are in the condition of free gradual and rectilinear motion as related
to the previous condition, which can be conventionally described as based,
processes for the observer will proceed in the same manner as earlier in the
based system.

3. It is
accepted that symmetries as to shifts in time, in space, and at turn are valid;
i.e. there are such properties as uniformity of time, space uniformity and
isotropy.

4. All base spatiotemporal parameters are measured with the help of
electromagnetic waves, i.e. the toolkit may include electronic watch, light
rulers etc. which are standards for usual mechanical rulers and watches of any
type. Synchronization of some watch with the others is carried out with the
help of circulation of electromagnetic signals while allowing time for their
delay at a certain distance. In other words, the signal from the first watch
should reach the second one and then return; in this case the observer with the
first watch can give the observer with the second watch the instruction for
fixing his watch with the time shift equal to half of time of signal traveling
forward and back. Direct measurement of length is possible only in motionless
coordinate system, and when an object is moving, its length is identified
indirectly through the light signals sent simultaneously from the ends of
object to a motionless ruler.

5. Speed of light (or an electromagnetic wave) in vacuum is
considered the same in all inertial coordinate systems.

Since in
STR the principle of relativity is used, STR is valid for inertial systems,
which are defined as moving rectilinearly with constant velocity in absence of
external influences, and is the first approximation to the results determined
for no inertial systems.

The consequence
of above-mentioned axioms is independence of speed of light on direction and
speed of motion of light sources. Other well-known effects of STR are relativity
of simultaneity, time slowdown, and longitudinal reduction of sizes of moving
bodies. And this description would seem perfect if not for one thing – each STR
formula contains speed of light, but we do not know how light is distributed;
nor do we know about the spread of electromagnetic wave in general! And do we
have to use the photon concept, i.e. change from classical electrodynamics to
quantum electrodynamics, only to describe how the high-frequency
electromagnetic field acquires a new property – quantization? Just to say that
electromagnetic field is a special kind of matter, which enables interaction of
charges, means to put the problem under cover. Failure in explanation of the
internal structure of electromagnetic wave entails only formal and mathematical
aspect of STR, not allowing us to find its restrictions and to outreach its
framework. And it is already written in many textbooks that speed of light is
limit of interactions transfer, and no carrying medium, which is different from
the electromagnetic wave itself, is necessary to transfer electromagnetic
interaction. But the last means absolute autonomy and non-destructibility of
electromagnetic radiation in the sense that one such wave cannot be neutralized
by the other counter and opposite wave. And if it took place, where would the
energy of both waves disappear, if the matter of waves differs basically from
the matter of substance? And then how can interaction of electromagnetic
radiation and the charges inducing it be possible in general?

Thus, it is much more natural to have a certain material medium (ether) as a carrier of electromagnetic interaction. It allows us to look at the whole spectrum of possible structures of electromagnetic oscillations at once – from ordinary periodic waves moving in the environment and capturing substance in each point where there is active short-term spatial movement of this substance, up to sole structures similar to soliton. Besides, it is also possible to present the model of photon as that of moving independent quanta containing a captured and organized medium or substance inside [1].

Suppose
we speak of ether as medium, without which electromagnetic oscillations are
inconceivable, might we combine this idea with conclusions of STR or not? It
turns out to be possible. In [2] it is shown, that it would be sufficient for
us to accept the existence of such an initial isotropic coordinate system, in
which the speed of electromagnetic waves is the same in all directions, to make
it possible further to deduce all formulae of STR according to the principle of
relativity. Thus consequently the constancy of the speed of wave in all
inertial systems and independence of the speed of light in relation to the
speed of light sources should be accepted. The initial postulate of the
classical STR appeared itself deduced from other assumptions! Simultaneously we
get rid of the restrictions imposed by the formal scheme of the classical STR.
First, it is now possible to examine seriously various models of ether as a
carrier of electromagnetic field, choosing from these models the ones that do
not contradict the essence of the new concept of STR. So it is easy to imagine
such an isotropic
coordinate system in ether, in which the speed of electromagnetic wave is the
same in all directions, or the other way round, to acknowledge that isotropy is
provided by ether as some medium, which is generally motionless. Second, we can
now understand the existence of quite accurately stated value of the speed of
light in vacuum as a necessary consequence arising from the properties of the
particles of ether. Third, the observed independence of the speed of wave from
the speed of the sources of electromagnetic radiation can be proved by the
action of two factors – the influence of the procedure of spatiotemporal measurements
used by us in different inertial coordinate systems, and the action of ether as
a carrying medium in an isotropic coordinate system. Fourth, the existence of
an isotropic coordinate system sets it apart from all the other inertial
coordinate systems. It means that we avoid ascribing relativity completely
absolute character, getting rid of metaphysics from the philosophical point of
view. And fifth, the new concept of STR completely coincides with the classical
variant in two limiting cases – in vacuum experiments when ether is as though
not picked up by moving bodies at all, on the one hand, and in case of the
conditional full capture of ether, on the other hand. As in the classical STR
ether is rejected as superfluous, it is not supposed to be discovered. However,
in STR with ether it may be theoretically found out in an intermediate case
with the incomplete capture of ether, since the external ether wind should
somehow influence the distribution of light inside material bodies when these
bodies are moving in relation to the isotropic coordinate system. This
conclusion might help us to assess the properties of ether through experiments
such as the well-known Fizeau experiment with the
passage of light in water. It should at least be correct when material bodies
or water in Fizeau experiment move with acceleration.

Let's turn
now to the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). Its scheme was aimed at the
development of the

Logic of
GTR looks as follows. The principle of proportionality of the inertial masses,
responsible for the resistance of bodies to acting forces, and gravitational
masses, affecting the bodies attraction (the principle of Galileo), results in
the identical acceleration of various bodies near massive source under
identical initial conditions. From this the principle of equivalence follows –
it is possible to replace a gravitational field, at least locally, by an
accelerated moving coordinate system; gravitational forces thus are replaced by
the forces of inertia, and the general view of the phenomena in case of such
replacement will be the same. The presence of acceleration means a transition
to no inertial systems that changes the components of metric tensor, which is
necessary for the description of an interval. The interval both in STR and in
GTR is described as the distance between indefinitely close to each other
events in four-dimensional space-time. The change of the metric tensor
components in GTR from the geometrical point of view is equivalent to the fact
that space-time in each point is distorted, becoming non-Euclidean. As presence
of field sources and energy sources of various kinds in general changes
geometry, the simplest recording of GTR equations is the linear dependence of
tensor space-time curvature and tensor density of matter energy-impulse. In
terms of geometry motion of free bodies in STR takes place along a straight line from force of inertia (gravitations of bodies are absent), and in GTR
the similar line named the geodetic line, is bent under action of gravitation,
differing from a straight line. In both cases under identical conditions bodies
travel along the same geodetic lines, appropriate in either in STR or GTR. As a
matter of fact, in GTR the acceleration of bodies does not depend on mass (the
principle of equivalence), but depends on the choice of a geodetic line, i.e. on
geometry.

The
well-known effects of GTR are the slowdown of time near massive bodies and the
reduction of the bodies’ sizes in direction of the gradient (the greatest
change) of gravitational field. All results of GTR proceed from the assumption
that the search for gravitational field is replaced by finding metric tensor
components, used further for the calculation of bodies’ motion on geodetic
lines. Moreover, metric tensor appears to be the basic characteristic of the
gravitational field. As a result, geometry absorbs physics – from a real
gravitational field remains just metrics, force of gravitation is reduced to
force of inertia and is explained in kinematical way. The most obvious weakness
of such an approach is that the energy of gravitation in GTR is just pseudo tensor,
and not a real one. It is quite natural – the energy of a physical field is
always tensor and may be transformed to any coordinate system whereas the
transformation of geometrical analogue of energy cannot be made from one
coordinate system to another directly, as it demands preliminary knowledge of
the geometry of a new coordinate system. The problem with energy means actually
the problem of its localizability – in different coordinate systems of GTR the
energy is focused in space in various ways.

Are there
ways for restoration the status of gravitational field as that of real physical
and not geometrical field? One of attempts is made in works [3–4] on the basis
of changing the tensor equations of gravitational field, used for space-time in
STR. Another approach is offered in [1–2], proceeding from the following
reasoning. Gravitational field is considered similar to electromagnetic one, so
for it the equations like Maxwell equations are formed and there are appropriate
scalar and vector potentials. If we apply standard Einstein equations in order
to find metrics inside a homogeneous massive sphere, containing incompressible
liquid moving arbitrarily, we will see that all non-diagonal components of
metrics in approximation of the weak field are veritably proportional to vector
gravitational potential, and diagonal components are functions of scalar
potential! Thus approach when gravitational field is described directly in
terms of STR, and not only GTR as it used to be previously, proves to be
correct. Moreover, in STR gravitational field receives not only the energy
formula, but also the impulse formula, and becomes Lorentz-invariant field
indeed. In particular, rotation of a charge derivates magnetic field, just as
rotation of a mass creates torsion in space as an independent component of
gravitational field. Torsion appears to be necessary because otherwise it would
be impossible completely to describe the force of gravitational interaction
acting between two masses. In fact, in the state of rest force of Newtonian
attraction operates between masses, but if we try to record precisely the
transformation of this force in moving coordinate system, it will hardly be
possible without taking into account vector potential. It is Lorentz-invariance
that gives an opportunity to transform forces and potentials of a field from
one coordinate system into another with the help of standard Lorentzian
transformations. Fruitful results of consideration of gravitation in STR are
shown in article [5] when calculating angular momentum and radius of proton,
and also proving the analogue of the virial theorem for angular momentum of
gravitational and electromagnetic fields. If by virtue of the virial theorem
gravitational the energy of a big space body has twice the module the kinetic
energy of motion of substance particles of this body has, it turns out that
angular momentum of gravitational field outside a space body is also twice as
big as angular momentum of gravitational field inside this body.

What
should be done now about Einstein tensor equations in GTR, if we consider
gravitational field real in STR as well? How will the contents of these
equations change? Here it is necessary to take into account the same way, which
is widely used to include electromagnetic field in GTR. Namely, all tensor
quantities should be written down in necessary covariant form, and only after
that tensor equations should be substituted in for the calculation of metrics.
Having done this for gravitational field as well, we can find the metrics
varied under joint action of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. It is
already impossible to count energy-impulse equal to zero outside a lone massive
body as it is done in traditional GTR, because around a body there is always
its own gravitational field and field from other sources. Gravitation can be
treated as joint effect from the action of real physical fields –
electromagnetic and gravitational. The validity of the offered approach is
proved in a different way in [2] when the inertial observer in infinity having
used the principle of equivalence finds in STR precisely the same slowdown of
time that in the framework of GTR real gravitational field brings after its
covariant has been included in equations in the framework of GTR. In result not
metric, but the real gravitational field obtains the property of gravitational
radiation, the source of which are moving masses. If in classical GTR only
quadrupole gravitational radiation, considered as the consequence of
fluctuations of the metrics, is possible, in the new version of GTR radiation
may have dipole character, and it is similar to dipole electromagnetic
radiation. Due to the division of metrics and gravitational field their changes
may be non synchronous as the metrics may be influenced by other sources of
energy-impulse. It should also be noted about the speeds of distribution of
these changes, that they do not necessarily have the same values, though under
the order of value they are close to the speed of light. Recent experiments
with the measurement of the delay of the deviation of light from quasar in
moving gravitational field of the Jove show that [6].

If
classical STR refuses the decision of the problem of internal structure of
electromagnetic field, the theory of long-range interaction of Newtonian
gravitation as well as classical GTR with its concept of short-range
interaction of gravitation are not capable either to throw light on the nature
of the gravitational field. The formalism of these theories is adapted only to
the description of consequences – the arising forces, prospective trajectories
of motion etc., but cannot explain to us the real reasons. We should restore a
true picture of the profound phenomena according to the light ripples on the
surface of events. One of the clues to the mystery of gravitational field is
the concept of gravitons, represented in [1]. Any two bodies will be as though
drawn to each other owing to the effect of mutual shielding if they are in the
cloud of penetrating them in all directions uncountable small-sized particles –
gravitons. Calculations show, that in this case the gravitational force looks
like the law of Newtonian gravitation, i.e. gravitons push bodies to each other
proportionally to their masses and in inverse proportion to the square of distance.

Let's
assume now, that the densest objects, which gravitation may create, are neutron
stars, and so the maximal pressure in them creates the same density of energy
that gravitation has. Then it becomes possible to estimate the factor of
gravitons absorption in substance and to connect it with the gravitational
constant to find the length of free running of gravitons according to the
density of substance, and the stream of their energy through a single-unit area
per unit of time. The section of gravitons interaction with substance appears
to be so small, that only particles of neutrino type with energy about 1 keV can be gravitons. Supposing, that it is really the
case, for the concentration of gravitons we find the value 10^{49} m^{-3}.
At last, we have an opportunity to understand the law of inertia, i.e. the
absence of braking in bodies moving with uniform velocity in the gravitons
flow. The matter is that on the one hand by virtue of Doppler effect, the
movement of a body quadratically changes the total impulse received in a unit
of time from the gravitons, coming from the opposite direction, – due to the increased
frequency of impacts with gravitons, and due to the increase of their energy.
But on the other hand, the more the energy of gravitons is, the less is the
section of their interaction with substance and the less is the braking force.
As a result at any uniform velocity of motion the force of braking does not
arise and the law of inertia is carried out. Each transition from one uniform
velocity to another and from one steady state to another demands energy expenses,
so during such transition we feel resistance proportional to the mass of the
body. As gravitons are responsible for the attraction of bodies, together with
the effect of bodies’ inertia, it accounts for the proportionality of
gravitational and inertial masses, observed in the experiment. In the concept
of gravitons kinetic energy of a moving body may be calculated as the work
necessary to change the speed of motion of this body concerning an equilibrium
state of gravitons flows. Besides kinetic energy, each body and particles making
it are characterized by the so-called energy of rest, the value of which is
equal to the energy liberated at hypothetical full disintegration of particles
of this body in the given coordinate system. The total energy of a body
consists of the energy of rest and kinetic energy, and in practice it is
calculated with the help of the body’s mass and momentum.

We may go
further and connect more closely gravitational and electromagnetic fields.
First, the equations of gravitational field constructed in [1], are similar to
Maxwell equations for electromagnetic field. Second, calculations show that for
a wide range of objects the ratio of their binding energy (gravitational
energy) to their own electromagnetic energy is approximately equal to the same
value, which is the ratio of the mass of proton to the mass of electron. It
applies to degenerated objects such as nucleons and neutron stars, and to the
energy of nuclear gravitation in relation to the energy of zero fluctuations of
electromagnetic field in a black cavity with the envelope of nucleons, to the
energy of rest of substance of the Metagalaxy in relation to the energy of background
radiation, and to the relation of capacities of dipole gravitational nuclear
radiation of proton to its appropriate electromagnetic radiation as a charge.
All this helps us to arrive at the notion that electromagnetic radiation is the
same as peculiar fluctuations of carrying them gravitons flows. In this case
the role of ether is played by the medium consisting of quickly moving and
all-penetrating gravitons. Besides electromagnetic radiation, there are also
stationary electromagnetic fields, which need to be explained as well. It is
obvious, that stationary gravitational field around a massive body depends on
the invariance of interaction of the particles, making this body, with
gravitons. Similarly, stationary electromagnetic field arises under the
condition of the invariance of movement of the charged particles creating the
field, and due to the special interaction of the charged particles with
gravitons. In particular, we easily discover the influence of one charge on
another, changing its type according to the type of charges. The possible
explanation is that the charge of a body not only essentially increases or
reduces the general factor of gravitons absorption, but also changes the configuration
of their distribution in environmental space, which in case of large density of
gravitons energy results in additional and significant in size electromagnetic
force. The direction of force in this case may depend both on the direction of
gravitons polarization in the field of cooperating charges, and on the spatial
distribution of gravitons near charges of different types, on their
concentration or, on the contrary, on divergence arising from the properties of
charges.

Under
such an approach the concept of fundamental force means its symmetry to
cooperating bodies as consequence of the way of interaction. If a sole body is
in isotropic coordinate system where streams of gravitons are counterbalanced
in all directions, such a body will necessarily be at rest or travel without
acceleration by the force of inertia. Due to the high penetrating ability of
gravitons the fact of absence of acceleration is established inside the
coordinate system connected with the body, with no reference to other
coordinate systems. If the acceleration of the body in relation to isotropic
coordinate systems exists, the coordinate system of the body is not inertial
and in it necessarily there are forces of inertia. During the accelerated
rectilinear movement the body under the action of compelling force and the
force of inertia changes the form, gets flattened, and may even remain in this
state after the removal of constraining force. When the acceleration is rotary,
under the action of the moment of forces and the opposing inertial moment the
body also changes the form (the sphere turns to the ellipsoid). In both cases
after the removal of either force or moment of forces the body moves by the
force of inertia –either rectilinearly, or rotates with constant angular
velocity. However, even rotation with constant angular velocity still implies
the presence of centripetal acceleration, so the system remains no inertial. No
inertia of coordinate systems with gravitational fields proceeds from the fact
that in them there is always the gravitational acceleration playing the role of
acceleration for the similar force of inertia (for example, at rest of a body
as related to the Earth its weight is discovered). Exactly in the same way, a
coordinate system is in fact not inertial if it is connected with charges as between
charges even at rest there are acceleration and force. Nevertheless,
electrodynamics in the framework of STR describes perfectly all phenomena with
charges. This fact convinces us that gravitational forces as well can be
described by the appropriate equations directly in STR. In that case the basic
role of GTR is limited to taking into account the dependence of the process and
the speed of distribution of an electromagnetic wave on the presence of the
sources of energy-impulse of any kind, specifying the results of spatiotemporal
measurements, and by doing so describing the phenomena in a more correct way.

Consideration
of the gravitational field as real physical field proved to be very fruitful in
thermodynamics traditionally using the power approach. Here it was possible to
deduce from the first principles the expression for heat and entropy increment,
and also the analytical expression for returning the system to the balance of
force in Le Chatelier-Braun principle [1]. Let us
remind, that according to Le Chatelier-Braun
principle of displacement of balance the system under external influence shows
resistance to transition into a new equilibrium state, in which the system as
though returns to its previous state. Entropy as the function of state turns
out to be not merely the measure of irreversible dispersion of energy or the
measure of probability of the realization of the certain macroscopic state, but
may be expressed through energy gradients of electromagnetic and gravitational
fields and the energy of substance, thus characterizing the structure of the
system from the point of view of volumetric distribution of energy, and being
the measure of linkage and interaction of the system’s particles. If we assume
for the sake of simplicity that heat enters the system as electromagnetic
quanta, the effective temperature of which under Wien law is proportional to
the frequency of radiation, the entropy decrement will be proportional to
quantity of the absorbed quanta bringing into the system certain order –
directed movement of excited particles. In the isolated from external streams
of substance systems it is still possible to consider the increment of internal
entropy, arising due to transition of system from non equilibrium position in
the state of rest, in which there is an equilibration of all forces.

In the
monograph [11] the following law was formulated: "The change of the system
organization is proportional to the change of internal and external streams of
energy, movement and ordering, which together constitute the stream of system’s
existence ". From the given law it is obvious that besides the laws of
conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum, it is also necessary to
take into account the law of conservation of entropy. It is true that the
increase of entropy in one system means the same its reduction in the other
system, which is equivalent to the transfer of orderliness to space-time. A
characteristic example here is the process of planets receiving sunlight and
emitting thermal radiation from their surface. In the given process there is
equality, balance of coming and leaving energies, but as temperatures of
radiations are different, there is a difference in entropy. It means that
planets receive negative entropy or negentropy, due to which the increase of
internal entropy during the processes of relaxation and various movements on
the planets with internal work being exercised on bodies are possible. It is
necessary to include in the full balance of the stream of entropy the influence
of gravitational field and the structural entropy of the planet’s substance
besides electromagnetic radiation. In the stationary condition there are
chemical transformations, circulation of substance in nature is taking place
and life is supported, and the internal work on the planet under the action of
the stream of solar energy is constantly compensated by the work of
gravitational forces. The law of conservation of entropy as measure of
orderliness for a full system can look as follows:

*S* = *S _{m}* +

where *S _{m}* is entropy of substance in view of the
contribution brought by motion,

*S _{f}* – entropy of fields,
including static and stationary components, and also components of entropy of
fields traveling in space (for example, entropy of the stream of radiation).

The
discovery of the law of conservation of entropy became possible just because
gravitational field was then perceived as a real physical field, which together
with electromagnetic field contributes to the systems’s
ordering.

Let's
move on to cosmology, the picture of the universe’ origin, presented to us now
by the prevailing theory of Big Bang and its versions as models of the inflated
or chaotic universe. The fundamental idea here is the existence in the very
"beginning" of super dense and hot not so much substance as the
mass-energy of the whole universe in very small volume as a field clot of
particles such as photons, quarks, gluons, neutrinos. Further under the action
of any instability the singular state collapses and explosive expansion slowing
down in time begins, so there is a cooling of elementary particles and their
subsequent linking in nucleons, and then in atoms of substance. After that the
time comes for the formation by self-gravitation of gas clouds, the first
stars, their congestions, and galaxies... Let’s not linger over the
philosophical analysis of the problem (and the matter here is that the
substitution of one mystery – singularity derived from nowhere, for another one
– the origin of the universe is a fruitless tautology, and even periodic
recurrence of process from singularity up to the maximal expansion with the
subsequent opposite contraction in singularity is nothing but metaphysics). Our
basic purpose will be criticism of the physical preconditions of the theory of
Big Bang and presentation of the alternative theory.

Let's
start with the theoretical basis of modern cosmology, traditionally including
the transfer of non-Euclidean geometry of GTR space-time to the whole universe.
It is supposed that it is possible to apply without restrictions the action of
the laws established on the Earth and its vicinities to much more extensive
areas. It is obvious that such statement is relative and should be checked in
each particular case. If we accept the validity of GTR for smaller distances,
from its equations non-stationarity of the universe, which should be either
compressed or extended, will follow. The theory predicts the connection of
space-time curvature with the density of mass-energy and describes the time evolution
of the universe in several allowable models. At the same time hardly anyone
pays attention to the fact that in all calculations the invariance of the
gravitational constant is implicitly present. It is no wonder, as the classical
GTR places the greatest emphasis not on physics, but on geometry, not
interaction, but kinematics. But if we speak about the evolution of the
universe from the point of its formation, we are obliged to take into account
also the evolution of its gravitation force, since now it is not same as it was
in the very beginning. As soon as we pass from the idealized
"geometrical" gravitation to its real mechanism of graviton type, new
questions immediately arise: How the evolution of the gravitational constant
develops in time? If for gravitation gravitons are responsible, when and by
what process did they generate? Similar questions are extremely important,
because estimated density of gravitons energy stream is about 1,5·10^{33} J/m^{3}, whereas the average
density of substance in the universe is now only about 10^{-10} J/m^{3}.
But it is the latter density of energy that theorists in cosmological models
operate, considering its evolution and not paying attention to a much more
possible quantity. It is very debatable if we can trust cosmological conclusions
of GTR in such conditions.

It is
supposed, that the theory of Big Bang proves to be true since the discovery of
redshift – the further from us galaxies are located, the greater shift their
spectra have in relation to the spectra of laboratory light sources. It would
seem that it is the direct proof of the galaxies’ running up, as the direct
explanation of redshift may be derived from Doppler effect
for the radiation of leaving sources. Then we should believe that close
galaxies are going away from us at a small speed, and the farthest galaxies
have the speeds close to the speed of light. And again we should try to
penetrate into the essence of things before we apply the results of laboratory
experiments to great objects. It is easy to notice that the explanation of
redshift through galaxies’ running up from the point of view of classical STR
stipulates rather a surprising phenomenon – the eternal, immutable photons flying
in boundless open spaces of cosmos and carrying us the information on the far
past of galaxies and stars, which had caused these photons. But are objects,
which with movement do not lose energy, possible in reality? Most unlikely, and
photons here can be no exception. Otherwise we should consider cosmological
spaces as active medium, all time fueling with energy photons of various
wavelengths that is equivalent to the new hypothesis demanding proof. If
photons permanently lose energy at motion, the exponential law for the
reduction of their energy and the increase of the length of wave is quite natural: . The distance, at which the energy of a photon will decrease
in *e* = 2,718 times (*e* – the base of the natural logarithm), will
be equal *s**
= c/H* = (3 – 6) Gpc, here *с* – speed of light, *H* = (50 – 100)
km / (c·Mpc) – Hubble constant [1]. Apparently, the
distance *s* is
already close to the size of Metagalaxy that is the object, which we only may
observe now as the representative of the whole universe. The ideas about the
losses of energy of photons at their traveling in cosmological space cause
doubts as to the reality of galaxies’ running up. This is also confirmed by the
periodicity of redshift in different congestions, which may be explained by the
periodicity of spatial arrangement of galaxies in these congestions, the observed
exponential increase of redshift at large distances, and also the fact of small
value of own velocities of the remote congestions of galaxies concerning
background radiation [7].

One more
discovery – of isotropic background microwave radiation – is used in the theory
of the Big Bang for the substantiation of the hot past of the universe. If the
universe is expanding, the average temperature of its radiation is falling.
Background radiation is then a relict kept from the moment when radiation
separated from the substance, heated up to the temperature about 4000 K. Careful
measurements of heterogeneity of background radiation in this case might throw
light on many large-scale processes in the universe. In any case high degree of
isotropy of background radiation and the great density of its energy speak
about spatial universality of the given kind of radiation and its important
role in cosmogony.

In [1] an
alternative cosmological theory is presented, which in contrast to the Big Bang
does not demand initial singular state. It is supposed that Metagalaxy is not
quickly expanding together with the galaxies, but is rather in a state close to
the stationary one or to the slow change of its volume. It may even happen that
it is simply getting compressed under the action of self-gravitation, as well
as many other objects known to us. Still Metagalaxy is only a small part of the
universe. We are of the opinion that both photons and gravitons lose energy at large
distances, so stretching GTR and its conclusions to the whole universe becomes
wrong.

As it was
shown above, redshift cannot any longer serve as an unequivocal proof of the
remote galaxies’ running up and the expansion of Metagalaxy. And what can be said
then about relic background radiation? Here it is necessary to consider the
global evolution of objects of the universe. Characteristic and mutually
supplementing processes are: 1) Formation of particles and material bodies in
opposite processes of flocking and crushing. 2) Formation of the static fields
attached to substance, and traveling fields as radiation from particles and
bodies. The substance and the field are inseparably connected with each other
as all forces, including forces of inertia, arise under the action of fields.
For flocking of substance in bodies fields are necessary, and the stability of
bodies is exercised at balance of gravitational and electromagnetic forces when
gradients of fields have equal values. In turn, field particles – photons,
gravitons, neutrinos – not only cooperate with substance and lose thus
mass-energy, but also are actively produced in multiple explosive processes and
disintegrations of excited states of particles.

So,
evolution of the universe is a continuous circuit of formation of objects
ranging from weightless gas clouds up to super dense bodies with degenerated
structure and quantum characteristics, and simultaneously a similar conveyor
for the particles of fields reproduced at all spatial levels. At the same time
the fields create conditions for the occurrence of particles of substance and
bodies and on the contrary, plural interactions of particles derivate fields.
Hence, to each level of substance structure its own set of particles’ sizes and
masses and effectively acting fields correspond. On the scale ladder of objects
it is possible to allocate such levels where quantities of fields reach maximum
values. An example can be the level of elementary particles with very stable,
almost eternal proton. Another example – the level of stars where there are
neutron stars as the most dense and consequently indestructable
space bodies. In both examples degenerated objects with quantum properties
exist when the extremeness of states of substance is accompanied by the extremeness
of appropriate fields, which allows drawing the comparison of objects with
different dimensions on the base of the theory of similarity.

It would
be quite logical to assume that gravitons in great numbers formed in processes
at a lower spatial level than the level of elementary particles, but in spite
of that they actively influence our much more scaled-up world. At the time when
everywhere in Metagalaxy under the action of gravitation nucleons were formed
background radiation appropriate to this process might arise. Here it is
possible to give at least two possible mechanisms described in [1]. According
to first of them, each nucleon at least once was subject to the initial
beta-decay from neutron to proton with radiation of antineutrino, having approximately
blackbody spectrum of energy (the same spectrum is characteristic for relic
background radiation). If we consider that from these very antineutrinos relic
radiation has arisen, the following formula for the average density of
substance of the Metagalaxy turns out: *ρ
= E·M _{u}_{ }/ ε =* 9·10

In the
theory of Big Bang there are plenty of yet unsettled problems, which are absent
or can be easily explained in our model of evolution. For example, why even at
great distances the distribution of substance is approximately homogeneous and
isotropic? Actually very remote areas of space all through prospective
evolution might not be causally connected with each other because of the
limited speed of interaction transfer. Another question concerns the
"plane" character of space. Why is the average density of substance
in Metagalaxy so close to the so-called critical density that in accordance
with GTR space in its properties differs little from flat Euclidean space? To
make this possible, their unbelievably exact concurrence even at the very
beginning of expansion from singularity is required. If the expansion really is
taking place, initial fluctuations and the rotation of the substance of future
galaxies should decrease in its course. Return extrapolation in time results in
the problem of unusually great fluctuations and huge initial whirlwinds of
vague nature. At last, if once the universe was heated up to very high
temperatures, and then during the expansion was cooled with the formation of
the first elementary particles, where have antiparticles been since? In case of
annihilation of particles and antiparticles substance could not have been
formed at all. Therefore, again there is a problem, the offered solutions of
which are as exotic as the theory of Big Bang itself.

There are
many observant facts already, which obviously are not in line with the
predictions of the theory of Big Bang or contradict it. For example, the
angular size of the most extended anagalactic
radiation sources decreases with the growth of redshift precisely how it should
be expected in case of Euclidean universe [8]. The age of the oldest stars,
spherical congestions and galaxies is approximately identical and ranges 17 –
26 billion years that exceeds the time until now usually given in the theory of
Big Bang for evolution– up to 13 billion years. On the other hand, if
Metagalaxy simply collapsed under the action of self-gravitation, the time of
free fall would be equal to 85 billion years (here
*γ* – the gravitational constant, *ρ* – average density of
substance of Metagalaxy). Apparently, this time quite will be quite sufficient
for the formation of elementary particles from the environment (because of the
increased speed of nuclear processes time in microcosm, understood as the
stream of equivalent events, flows quickly), and also for the formation of
stars and galaxies from the emerging hydrogen gas.

The high
degree isotropy of background radiation testifies that in the past Metagalaxy
was much more homogeneous, than now, so earlier it might have the increased
sizes and reduced heterogeneity and congestion of substance. Thus the problem
of the initial fluctuations required for galaxies creation is automatically
solved. In contrast to expansion, at collapse the initial rotation of substance
is always less by virtue of the law of conservation of the angular momentum
that is physically clear and does not demand special explanations.

The
problem of the observed ratio of hydrogen, helium and heavy elements in space
finds its decision too. Helium and nuclei of heavier chemical elements might
appear without any participation of Big Bang. They as well may be the result of
substance processing in initial neutron stars of the galaxies formed from stars
with the mass equal to about 10 – 16 solar masses [9]. In the recent article
[10] through the analysis of super new star distribution with the large
redshift not only the formula for the loss of energy by photons, but also the
picture of the flat universe proves to be true.

By virtue of all stated we have every possible right to say that the theory of Big Bang claims the status of the biggest myth in the history of physics. This theory inspired so many problems and blind alleys of theoretical thought, that the only cardinal way to overcome them is to get rid of the theory altogether.

Let's
consider now quantum mechanics. As studying the microcosm phenomena we always
deal with the set of particles and similar corresponding interactions, in
quantum mechanics it is accepted to describe not the real motion of a concrete
particle, but probabilities for this or that particle to be in the certain
state of motion or to have given energy. Amplitudes of probability are called
in quantum mechanics wave functions by analogy with complex wave amplitudes in
usual mechanics, and if the square of wave function is proportional to probability
of event, the square of complex amplitude gives the intensity of a resulting
wave. As well as complex amplitudes, wave functions meet the principle of
superposition. The probabilistic approach in quantum mechanics was exhibited in
the ratio of Heisenberg uncertainty for uncertainties of measurable physical
variables, canonically connected with each other, and in Schrödinger equation
for wave function. In particular, it is believed that the particle may be found
in any place of space where its wave function is different from nil.

Due to
the universal probabilistic-wave approach quantum mechanics has achieved remarkable
success – many properties and structure of gases and firm bodies were explained
(thermal capacity, ferromagnetism, superfluidity, superconductivity, some
features of metals, dielectrics and semiconductors, laws of radiation), the
structure of atoms and nuclides, the properties of nuclear particles, and
nuclear reactions. At the same time quantum mechanics appeared unable to bring
us to understanding its basic concepts, for example, the origin of the quantum
of action as Planck constant, or the essence of spin and the charge of
particles. Owing to the vague internal structure of electron the stability of
atoms remains not clear until now; in fact it is simply postulated on the basis
of Pauli principle of ban for electrons, indeterminancy principle and energy
discreteness of nuclear levels. The essence of light dualism – simultaneous overlapping
of its wave and corpuscular properties, quantization of light not only at the
point of its absorption or emission by micro particles, but also at its
distribution in space – demands further studying. The weak point of quantum
mechanics is also its principal refusal to solve the problems connected with
the description of particular movements inside a separate quantized action –
its competence is limited only to operations with the variables describing the
initial and final states of system. A characteristic consequence of it is the
principle of indistinguishability of identical particles before and after their
interaction.

In
quantum mechanics it is accepted that to each particle with the certain state the
wave of de Broglie may be compared as an appropriate wave function. Experiments
with photons, electrons, nucleons, atoms and molecules diffraction confirm the
presence of wave properties in particles, however this
leaves the mechanism of the phenomenon in the shadow. One of the possible
solutions of the problem of wave-corpuscle dualism of particles is given in
[1]. If we consider that in each micro particle the internal electromagnetic
fluctuations caused by the action of external excitation are possible, their
simple recalculation with the help of Lorentzian transformation into a
laboratory system results in the length of de Broglie wave becoming the spatial
division between the peaks of maximum amplitude of these fluctuations. The
length of wave appears to be proportional to Planck constant and inversely
proportional to the speed of motion of particles and the energy of excitation.
At diffraction on crystals, liquids and gases the energy of excitation of
falling particles reaches maximum due to electromagnetic interaction with the
molecules of substance, and the length of de Broglie wave becomes inversely
proportional to the momentum of particles.

The
description of phenomena in terms of probabilities has allowed to estimate in
quantum mechanics the possible levels of energy in atom, to find their
discreteness as the consequence of spatial quantization of electrons
manifestation (orbital quantum number *l*, connected to the modulus of
angular momentum; magnetic quantum number *m*, reflecting possible projections
of the angular momentum to the allocated direction; the main quantum number *n
*as the basic number specifying the levels of energy), and also as the
consequence of internal properties of particles manifestation (the quantum
number *J* , connected to the spin of particles). The formalism of the
theory is entirely directed towards the quantitative description of experiments
and does not provide any opportunity for deep penetration into the live essence
of the nuclear phenomena – practically no attempts of modeling such processes
as historical development of the components of atom – its nucleus and
electrons, and their actual interaction are ever made. An effort to attribute
this problem to the competence of the model of Big Bang now looks as fruitless
as the model of Big Bang itself.

Narrowing the problem of stability of atom to electromagnetic and centrifugal forces does not thoroughly clear up the situation, as not clear is the self-occurrence of electric charges. The same can be said about mechanisms of chemical bond between atoms. The listed questions are raised in [1] where the formula for the origin of micro particles’ electric charge due to rotation of their own magnetic field is deduced. In the assumption, that the evolution of micro particles is similar to the evolution of planet-star systems, there is an analogy for proton and electron. The proton here is compared to the last stage of evolution of a massive star – a neutron star, whereas the rest of its planetary system which are eventually losing the orbital moment and breaking up in the powerful gravitational field of the star, are the analogue of the electron. Not all substance of the rest of planets falls on the neutron star as electromagnetic forces and orbital rotation prevent the fall of iron ferromagnetic particles from the nuclei of planets. So the model of the formation of the neutron star and the development of the rest of the nuclei of planets into a magnetized cloud around of the star help to explain with the help of analogy observed substance electro neutrality when there is a proton for every electron. It is interesting that if we measure the distance where planets should break up in the gravitational field of a neutron star (known as Roche limit) with the help of the theory of similarity for a hydrogen atom, it will appear that this distance precisely corresponds to an orbit with the first Bohr radius where electron is in the ground state! It is easy to check having compared the relation of Roche limit to the radius of a neutron star, and the relation of Bohr radius to the radius of proton.

Besides
proton and electron, there are still a great number of elementary, so-called
subnuclear particles and antiparticles. All of them may be placed in the
appropriate classes: hadrons (mesons and baryons), leptons (electron, muon,
tau-lepton and corresponding to them neutrino), photons, intermediate vector
bosons, and gravitons. It is supposed that hadrons participate in all kinds of
interactions – strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational, whereas leptons
do not participate in strong interaction. Hadrons have the greatest variety of
particles and may be as stable as proton, quasi stable because of rather long
disintegration from electromagnetic and weak interactions, and also unstable
with a small lifetime and disintegration from strong interaction.

Quantization of properties and discreteness of the states of particles due to the change of their spin, charge, mass, and internal structure allows to use the principles of symmetry and to unite particles in isotopic and unitary multiplets, and also in families along Regge trajectories. In view of it for the explanation of the whole variety of hadrons quark model is applied, according to which mesons consist of two quarks, and baryons – of three quarks. Characteristic of quarks as special sort of particles in the given model is that they can exist only inside hadrons, cannot be found beyond their limits in free state, and have fractional electric and baryon charges. Besides, they have color charges of three types and cooperate with each other with the help of gluons of eight types. Though quark model appeared to be convenient for the classification of hadrons, it cannot answer a number of important questions. If we cannot discover free quarks and gluons, how did they appear inside hadrons at the point of their formation as particles? The point is that each particle must have appeared some time and theoretically may some time be destroyed. The universal property of elementary particles to be born and destroyed when interacting with other particles does not help in this situation – we cannot consider quarks and existing on their basis hadronic substance eternal and only passing from one particle to another as separate complexes. The assumption that leptons cannot participate in strong interaction is also strange and it contradicts the experiments, in which high-energy leptons collided, and both hadrons and the strong interaction appropriate to them somehow arose. All things considered, the quark model seems to be as artificial construction, as the theory of Big Bang.

Let's say
again that strong interaction is responsible for the stability of nuclei and
the course of nuclear reactions, and also for the integrity and interaction of
hadrons, and is short-term with a characteristic distance of 10^{-15} –
10^{-14} m. It is possible to notice that strong interaction for the
same particle, for example, a proton, in usual treatment has rather an exotic
form – inside the proton there should be quarks and gluons interaction, having
the property of confinement, and outside, when the given proton is included in
the structure of a nucleus – interaction with other nucleons, but already with
the help of the exchange of mesons, basically pions. Such an abrupt change of
the type of strong interaction at transition through the border of the surface
of a proton seems extremely surprising and implausible. And why then in nuclei
steady cluster structures and the pair correlations of nucleons resulting in
the spectra of collective excitations are quite explicit?

Weak
interaction, as is known, is responsible for any reactions with leptons
participation, and is considered having even smaller radius of action than
strong interaction. Such intensities of weak interactions as the speed of the
course of reaction and the section of interaction increase quickly with the
growth of the energy of reaction. In a standard model of electroweak
interaction weak interaction is carried out with the help of intermediate
vector bosons, which should have certain mass of rest, so that interaction had
short-term character. It is supposed that bosons gaining mass
is the consequence of the "spontaneous infringement of
symmetry", whereas photons remain massless. The source of the infringement
of symmetry can be discovered in specially designed by theorists
hypothetical isodoublet scalar field with self-action and nonzero vacuum value.
The measurement of the quark structures of hadrons in weak interaction is
carried out by inclusion in weak currents of interaction members responsible
for the transitions of quarks into each other.

Practically
all modern theories, trying to explain the internal structure of the field and
elementary particles, are worded in terms of quantum theory and are essentially
quantum. Thus they almost do not pay attention to what the borders of Planck
constant applicability as the quantum of action are, and do not care whether
essentially probabilistic and quantum approaches can give a full picture of the
phenomena. At the same time from the theory of similarity it follows that at
each level of matter there is its own constant – a quantum of action of the
basic carriers of mass, so taking a closer look into elementary particles we
should find there qualitatively different substance in degenerated state with
the reduced constant of action. The problem of quark and electroweak models includes
the description of elementary particles distinctions from each other and the
prediction of results of their interactions; however these models cannot give
true presentation of particles’ structure and real interaction, and the
interrelation between various types of interactions (we shall recollect how
strongly formal theories of Newtonian gravitation and GTR differ from the intrinsic
concept of gravitons). The probabilistic approach of the quantum theory of
field and quantum chromo dynamics appears incomplete – justified in quantum
electrodynamics, this method encountered an insoluble problem of divergence in
the practiced perturbation theory in the analysis of strong interaction.

Are there other ways of penetration into the structure of the subnuclear particles, different from quantum approach, and not giving so formal results? As shown in [1], we have the right to apply even to such degenerated and having quantum properties objects as elementary particles, the methods of macroscopical physics. Resulting from the analogy with a neutron star, the gravitational energy of which is calculated precisely enough with the help of GTR, the concept of the nuclear gravitation for proton and other elementary particles is introduced, responsible for their integrity. The difference of nuclear gravitation from the usual one consists only in the replacement of the gravitational constant value. In result it becomes possible to find relation between the radius of proton and its gravitational energy (when binding energy is equal to the energy of rest). The force of nuclear gravitation also appears to be equal to the force of Coulomb attractions between a proton and an electron in hydrogen atom. A new result is the model of deuteron, in which the stability of two cooperating nucleons is provided by the action of two opposite directed forces – the force of nuclear gravitation, pulling nucleons together, and the force of magnetic pushing away, arising because of the presence of magnetic moments in nucleons, their rotation and prospective presence of superconducting state of the substance of nucleons, similar to that of neutron stars. When nucleons get closer to each other, the magnetic forces of pushing away in deuteron quickly grow, as it follows from the experiments with dispersion of particles on nucleons. In the given model strong interaction between elementary particles is not a special kind of interaction, but a result of the action between the particles of nuclear-gravitational and electromagnetic forces and forces of inertia from rotation. At the same distance total force depends both on the mass of particles, and on mutual orientation and quantities of the magnetic moments, orbital moments and spins of particles. Nucleons association in a nucleus results both in pair correlations, and in observable collective excitation of the most closely linked with each other nucleons.

We see that the use of the concept of nuclear gravitation enables us to describe several phenomena at once – not only the integrity of elementary particles, but also the stability of atoms, and bonds between cooperating elementary particles. In the given model annihilation of particles and antiparticles can be presented as follows: owing to the opposite direction of the magnetic moment at particles and antiparticles the magnetic force obviously cannot compensate the force of nuclear gravitation. It results in the collision of interacting particles and their subsequent destruction, thus energy of rotation of particles and part of binding energy transforms into electromagnetic quanta. For example, a proton’ and an antiproton’ annihilation may cause a gamma-ray quantum, and the rest of the substance usually transforms into pions.

If
electromagnetic field is the first historical example of the physical
Lorentz-invariant field, gravitational field should be considered (as we have
shown above in the description of GTR) the second physical field of this kind.
In the concept of nuclear gravitation strong interaction turns out to be a
result of the action of electromagnetism and nuclear gravitation. And what can
be said about weak interaction? The theory of similarity establishes the
following analogies between the objects: hadrons correspond to neutron stars of
different masses having respective spins and magnetic moments, and the stars
are in various energy states; muons in mass correspond to white dwarfs, and
electrons – to degenerated magnetized objects such as planets, breaking into
clouds near neutron stars. Photons and neutrinos in this picture may correspond
to flash-explosive emanation of the large portions of electromagnetic energy
and to the directed streams of accelerated substance from space objects. Well
known in nuclear physics process of disintegration of pion to muon and muonic
neutrino, and further disintegration of muon to electron and neutrino (electronic
and muonic) have parallels in the world of stars: a neutron star of 0,2 solar mass (analogue of pion) is unstable and first
breaks into a white dwarf of 0,16 solar mass, and then into even less massive
and dense object. The heaviest hadrons – resonances of *Υ-type –*
correspond to very hot massive neutron stars of 14 – 15 solar mass with a very
short time of life and their subsequent disintegration. They might be formed at
catastrophic collisions of neutron stars. Proceeding from the analogy with
space objects, weak interaction at disintegrations of elementary particles is
equivalent to the occurrence of instability of substance, which elementary
particles contain, and to the objective transition to a new equilibrium state.
In particular, processing of substance inside stars of the main sequence at
thermonuclear reactions naturally results in the formation of white dwarfs, so
similar process in the world of elementary particles would relate to the reactions
of weak interaction. Another example is the increase of mass of the white dwarf
over the limiting value and its transformation into a neutron star. Processes
of transformation of substance may last long, which provides small speed of
processes at weak interaction. It appears then that reactions of weak
interaction take place not thanks to some special force, but result from the
same electromagnetic and gravitational forces acting simultaneously – at the
scale level of elementary particles, and at a deeper scale level of the
substance making these particles. We see that such approach suggests the way to
solve the problem of connecting together all four known types of "fundamental"
interactions, and the given decision cardinally differs from other programs of
"great unification", using as a rule gauge
symmetry. Also the principle of energy-impulse equivalence of any type of
interaction and origin, as potential sources of the change of metrics of
space-time in GTR, becomes clearer and gets its theoretical basis.

Summarizing
all above-stated, it is possible to draw the following conclusion:

**The
existing paradigm of physical knowledge is obsolete and is subject to
inevitable replacement on the basis of transition to substantive theoretical
models of a deeper level.**

Irreplaceable
in such process of understanding is the theory of similarity based on succession
and the philosophical law of double denying. The theory of similarity allows
comparing the phenomena and the laws of micro and macrocosms with the help of
transformation of *SPФ-*symmetry, where operation *S* designates the
transformation of speeds, *P* corresponds to the transformation of the
sizes, and *Ф* – to the transformation of masses [1]. As it turns out,
with the transition from one scale level of matter to another the appropriate
transformation of *SPФ-*symmetry leaves the equations of movement of
bodies constant.

As a whole it is possible to notice that quite a lot of modern theories only describe the phenomena without touching upon the problem of modeling working mechanisms of these phenomena; moreover, they do not consider the genesis of the given mechanisms in their development. Thus we cannot proceed to the enrichment of our knowledge explaining the essence and the content, not just the form and the phenomenon. Advanced fractions of fundamental science should be oriented in this direction. Instead of it obviously insufficient and isolated attempts of separate scientists are observed. Moreover, many of them are not given due respect, they are considered odd fellows, who do not want to be satisfied with the existing state of affairs. Editions of scientific magazines frequently are not ready for rather difficult work with the authors of problematic articles on deep fundamental questions and consequently prefer to duplicate already approved works by well-known authorities, which do not present any special novelty. As a result separate out-of-date theories and no critically used principles of science constantly continue to reproduce new adherents, deliberately or not causing them to be going in the same circles. So what is waiting for us tomorrow – repetition of the past or a break-through in the unknown?

**References**

1.
Fedosin S.G. FIZIKA I FILOSOFIYA PODOBIYA OT PREONOV DO METAGALAKTIK. (Physics and Philosophy of Similarity from Preons up to Metagalaxies).
//

2. Fedosin S.G. SOVREMENNYE
PROBLEMY FIZIKI. V POISKAKH NOVYKH PRINTSIPOV. (Contemporary
Issues of Physics. In Search for the New Principles).
// M.: Editorial URSS, 2002. 192 p. (In Russian).

3. Logunov
A.A., Mestvirishvili M.A. Bases of the Relativistic
Theory of Gravitation. – M.:

4. Logunov A.A. Lectures on the Theory of Relativity and
Gravitation: Contemporary Analysis of Problems. – M.: Nauka,
1987. (In Russian).

5.
Fedosin S.G. and Kim A.S. THE MOMENT OF MOMENTUM AND THE PROTON RADIUS // Russ.
Phys. J. (Izvestiya Vysshikh
Uchebnykh Zavedenii, Fizika), Т. 45, 2002, P. 534 – 538.

6. Kopeikin S.M. and Fomalont E.B. Aberration and the Speed of
Gravity in the Jovian Deflection Experiment. – arXiv: astro-ph/gr-qc / 0311063 v1, 4 Nov. 2003.

7. Zel'dovich J.B., Sjunjaev R.A.
Metagalactic Gas in Congestions of Galaxies, Microwave Background Radiation and
Cosmology. – In “Astrophysics and Space Physics”. – M.: Nauka,
1982. (In Russian).

8. Miley G.K. // Monthly Notices of the Royal Astron. Society,
1971, V. 152, P. 477.

9. Rivs G. – in “Protostars and
Planets”. Part 2. – M.: Mir, 1982. (In
Russian).

10. Khaidarov K. VECHNAYA
VSELENNAYA. (The Eternal Universe). // On the site
www.n-t.org . (In Russian).

11.
Fedosin S.G. OSNOVY SINKRETIKI. FILOSOFIYA NOSITELEJ. (Fundamentals
of Syncretics. Philosophy of Carriers). M.: Editorial
URSS, 2003. 464 p. (In Russian).

Source: http://sergf.ru/psfen.htm