Scale dimension
Another World (M.C. Escher), 1947.
The scale dimension – dimension, regarded as the degree of
freedom in the theory of Infinite
Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, which characterizes the location of all
known objects in the Universe at largescale ladder of levels of matter. With SPФ symmetry one can make the transition
from a system on the level of matter to similar system at a different level of
matter, with the change in size of the system is accompanied by at least two
more parameters, for example, the mass and velocity of processes. ^{[1]}
This implies that the scale
dimension differs from the usual threedimensional spatial dimensions, and is a
special degree of freedom. In the study of matter carriers, which embody the
scale dimension, revealed fractality of space systems, their selfsimilarity,
hierarchical structures and nesting of small systems into large systems, similarity of matter levels. The
transition from a certain level of matter to an increasingly lower levels
reveals the depth of the spacetime – the objects are reduced in mass and size,
and speed of the local time from the perspective of an outside observer
increases.
In the research, which uses scale
transformations and spatial dimensions, the scale dimension may be studied by
geometrical methods, and thus beyond the scope of the geometry. The idea of the
scale dimension finally took shape in the writings of Robert Oldershaw, Sergey
Sukhonos and Sergey Fedosin.
Contents

Search and research prospects of
new spatial dimensions involved many scientists and philosophers. Helena
Blavatsky wrote:
“ 
The familiar phrase of the fourth dimension of space
can only be reduced over the full form of: – the fourth dimension of matter
in space ... The course of evolution may have to introduce us to the new
characteristics of matter ... ^{[2]} 
” 
As can be seen Madame Blavatsky
believed the fourth dimension is not just another spatial dimension, and
dimensionmediated properties of matter that can become aware and approved in
the future.
P.
D. Ouspensky for describing the properties of the fourth dimension came
from the fact that the motion of a point beyond itself leaves a trace as a
line, a similar movement of the line gives the trace in the form of surface,
movement of the surface in a direction not associated with the surface, gives a
threedimensional body. Hence, the displacement of threedimensional body in
non a threedimensional direction should lead to a trace as a fourdimensional
body. Ouspensky also drew attention to the fact that the line is a set of
points, the surface – the set of lines, and the body can be represented as a
set of surfaces related to each other. Consequently, the fourdimensional body
shall consist of a set of related somehow to the whole threedimensional
bodies.
On the other hand, the line is
limited to points at the ends and gives the distance between them, the surface
is bounded by lines and dots, and determines the distance between these lines
and points (an example is a circle with the center and circumference), and
threedimensional body is limited to surfaces, lines and dots with a certain
distance between them. Then the boundaries of fourdimensional body can be
threedimensional bodies, and probably the surface, lines and points. Ouspensky
also wrote:
“ 
Then – a point we consider as a section of line, the
line as a section of surface, the surface of a section of the body. By
analogy with this the threedimensional body (a cube, sphere, pyramid) can
probably be regarded as a section of the bodies of four dimensions, and all
threedimensional space as a section of four ... The Fifth Dimension should
not be considered as lying outside the mind, but as a property of
consciousness itself, – that line or what direction that should increase
awareness. ^{[3]} 
” 
In physics, the idea of extra
spatial dimensions is used in the theories of unification of fundamental
interactions. One of the earliest theories was Kaluza–Klein theory (Theodor
Kaluza, 1921), which tried to unite electromagnetism and gravity. Due to the
unobservability of the fourth spatial dimension in our world Oskar Klein in
1926 suggested that this dimension compactified and has a very small size. In
string theory used 10dimensional and 26dimensional spacetime, and additional
measurements are also subject to compactification.
Historicphilosophical analysis
of concepts of spatial dimension shows, ^{[4]} that the
earliest models of the universe were in the form of eggs (zerodimension),
replacing first band onedimensional model of ancient Egypt – the universe as
extended the Nile river, over which the pillars extend the sky in the form of a
flat roof, to which the bottom nailed the stars. Then came the twodimensional
model of antiquity – Earth of Homer (VIII cent. BC) likened to a convex shield
on all sides was surrounded by a riverocean and covered with starry dome, and
the medieval flat Earth was on the whales or elephants, and was also covered
starry dome.
Ptolemy's model of the universe
(II century AD.), was almost twodimensional, in it around the Earth on
epicyclical orbits rotating planets and stars (the latter are on a rotating
spherical dome). At present, in science dominates the heliocentric model of the
solar system and threedimensional model of the universe of Western European
civilization. Thus, there is increasing of space dimension in all models of the
world and all areas of beliefs about it. This is confirmed by the history of
painting, where the ancient paintings are onedimensional, twodimensional in
the Middle Ages, and only in the Renaissance they acquire a third dimension.
Since the beginning of the
twentieth century, artists began to attempt to show the new fourth dimension.
The most impressive results are achieved in the paintings of M. C. Escher and
Salvador Dali. The way from tape to threedimensional space has done
architecture, similarly to painting. One of the most famous attempts to break
into the four dimension can be regarded as an architectural work of Le
Corbusier. These examples of painting, cosmology and architecture conclusively
proved that over the past five thousand years our civilization has evolved from
a onedimensional to threedimensional space of consciousness, and is currently
in the transition to the four dimension.
There are different points of
view on the scale dimension, which underlying these or other properties of
objects in it and thereby characterize the very scale dimension.
For example, Edmund
Edward Fournier D'Albe believed, ^{[5]} that the
ratio of linear dimensions of the stars and atoms, as well as the ratio of
their durations of similar processes, expressed as the number 10^{22}. Yong Pyo Young by comparing atoms
and galaxies found for the coefficients of similarity in size and time of the
order of 10^{30}. ^{[6]} Thus the difference of
time speeds at different levels of matter is emphasized, as a consequence of
the properties of the scale dimension.
In terms of
geometry that describes spatial forms, the concept of "scale
dimension" is some interpretation of the concept "fourth spatial
dimension". One can imagine some fourth axis of space, move along its
threedimensional body and assume that the fourbody is the entire set of
forms, which took threedimensional body during moving along the fourth axis of
space. Similarly, movement of a point (zero dimension) yields a line (one
dimension), motion of a line parallel to itself delineates a plane figure (two
dimensions), movement of a plane figure in direction of vector does not lie in
the plane of the figure, leads to the bulk body. In contrast to this approach,
scale dimension has the additional property – not just geometric objects move
in space for formation of the fourth dimension, but it can still change its
scale. That is, threedimensional body can change its size (volume) when
driving along scale axis, similar to the area can vary the shape and thickness
of the line. As with any axis of the coordinate system in spacetime, scale
axis is different from all other axes in relation its direction, and that is
enough for geometry. For physical systems is convenient to assume that the
direction of the axis shows in the direction of increasing scale, and opposite
direction – into the interior space.
The fourth
dimension is very difficult for the imagination. One way to see its expression
– imagine yourself shrinking in size and observing the surrounding space with
objects in it. Another option – to draw a volume in space surveillance and
permanently reduce its size. The process is endless, and despite the fact that
outside of the scope, limited quantities beyond the Planck scale, quantum
physics do not imagine what there happens, we can not say that there is no
space. This decrease in the volume of observation reveals, moreover, special
features of space, which are difficult to apperceive – namely, the infinity of
space in an infinite number of points. Since all five visible (or represented
figuratively) dimensions (including time) are of infinite length, then assume
the finiteness of the fourth dimension at small scale there is no reason to.
In
philosophy, the concept of space is defined as a form of existence of matter,
having the property length, and time – as a form of existence of matter, having
the property of duration of existence. In theory of relativity an elementary
event is described by spatial coordinates and time at which the object in
question is in the given spatial point. Consideration of time axis as
equivalent axis of reference system was only possible due to the limited speed
of light, because the length of the interval of the time axis is determined by
the product of speed of light in space and time, must be finite. From this it
follows that time axis in its origin is not identical to any one spatial axis,
and physical spacetime is not equivalent to any ndimensional space of
geometry. Scale dimension, as well as time, occupies a special position in the
determination of a complete physical frame of reference necessary in each case
for the solution of theoretical and practical problems.
Robert Oldershaw considers a
discrete selfsimilar scale relativity, which can be found in the scale
dimension as a fundamental principle of symmetry of nature, which extends the
principle of general relativity in the study of physical systems.^{[7]} The main levels in the observed world Oldershaw
relates atomic, stellar and galactic levels of matter, and in nature must exist
not yet observed levels of matter at the micro scale and on the mega scale.
Between the levels of matter
according to Oldershaw connection can be established in the form of the same
factors of similarity in size and time equal to Λ = 5.2 ∙ 10^{17}, as
well as the similarity coefficient in mass X = Λ ^{D} = 1.7 ∙ 10 ^{56},
where the exponent D = 3.174. This leads to a difference in the gravitational
constant at different levels of matter – strong
gravitational constant at the atomic level, the usual gravitational constant for the level of
stars, and assumed to be essentially reduced the value of the gravitational
constant for the level of galaxies: m^{3} • s^{–2} • kg^{–1}. If to substitute these
gravitational constant in the equation for the metric of the EinsteinHilbert,
different results are obtained – for example, depending on the matter level
considered the black hole can be a proton or an appropriate stellar or galactic
object.
Oldershaw considers it necessary
to extend the principle of relativity in the sense that physical laws should be
written so that they depended not only on the position in the geometrical
threedimensional space, from the time, of orientation, motion, and the
position of the reference system on a discrete scale ladder matter, but also
from the choice of the level of matter at the scale axis . According to him, if
between the levels of matter holds the exact cosmological selfsimilarity (in
the immutability of the coefficients of similarity for all levels), physical
laws and relatively constant at these levels should be identical.
Sergey Sukhonos introduced into
consideration the scale axis (Maxis) as a special, fourth spatial dimension,
and disposes on it all the objects of the universe.^{[8]}
In this case, he discovers that in the arrangement of groups of objects, there
is order, corresponding to a logarithmic increase their size. ^{[9]} In connection with this Sukhonos makes the assumption
that the observed distribution of groups of objects, has its cause harmonic
oscillations in fourdimensional space, which generate nodes —
threedimensional stable systems. To substantiate this point of view are
considered the natural oscillations in the form of standing waves in objects of
different dimensions, when the length of an object always fits a whole number
of waves.
Onedimensional case for a
string, sandwiched on both sides, is shown in Figure 1. String is linear
system, the excitation occurs in the plane, and standing wave node
represents a point object. Next will be considered dimension of systems
in accordance with the dominant length. If we denote N_{д} – the
dimension of the motion of the system, N_{c} – the dimension of the
system, N_{у} – the dimension of the system nodes, then for the string
can be written:
Sukhonos suggests that (1) is satisfied
for all values of N_{c}. Figure 2 shows twodimensional (N_{c}
= 2) case in the form of a circular flat membrane.
With vibrations of the membrane
on the surface appear linear ring structure (the dimension of the nodes N_{у}
= 1), which seemed to mark the places on the membrane, where there is no
movement, representing linear " nodes" of standing waves on the
plane. You can see that for a string in Figure 1 the oscillations occur
perpendicular to the strings, and transverse vibrations in Figure 2 are also
perpendicular to the plane of the membrane. On the membrane can be standing
waves along the radius in the form of rings, and can assume the wave along the
rings themselves. Space of excitation, which is seen in ring structures of
antinodes vibrations, is threedimensional.
We now turn from twodimensional
medium to threedimensional medium (N_{c} = 3). In this case, the
dimension of nodes equals two (flat wall of cell volumes in Figure 3), and the
space of excitation must be fourdimensional.
In his early works Sukhonos
analyzed the known idea that the fourth spatial dimension is orthogonal to
threedimensional space. He suggested that the forced pulsation of the
threedimensional volume (Fig. 3), its periodic compressionexpansion should
lead to a threedimensional standing waves whose nodes are the walls of cells.
To confirm this, he is considering an experiment in which a cubic volume of the
liquid saturated with light particles (suspension) is compressed. An example is
the cooling liquid metal alloy with different impurities. During the cooling
the volume of casting will be compressed from all sides, providing compression
orthogonal to threedimensional space. This alloy during solidification is
filled with socalled grains, twodimensional boundary between which is formed
by a suspension of (additives, pores, etc.). These boundaries are
twodimensional nodes of fourdimensional vibration in threedimensional
environment.
If to realize an increase in the
dimension of the medium to a value of N_{c} = 4 and create some
movement in it, is orthogonal to threedimensional space, then in the medium
will formed nodes whose dimension be equal to three (Nу = Nс – 1 = 4 – 1 = 3).
Sukhonos suggests that such nodes can be threedimensional body whose stability
is caused only by the fact that they are nodes of fivedimensional oscillations
in the fourdimensional environments. These nodes form a stable
threedimensional world of objects in the Universe, which is a complex
superposition of vibrations fourdimensional space. The duration of the
existence of systems of the universe, their stability is associated with power
of nodes, with the energy of vibrations generating the systems. This implies
that the description of the diversity of the universe can be accomplished using
the theory of waves and vibrations, but in an environment of higher dimension
than hitherto used traditional science.
Galatea of the Spheres, 1952.
Number of basic dimensions in physics
is determined by the number of degrees of freedom or independent variables that
determine the location of the physical body or its elements, considered as
points in a given frame of reference. The number of dimensions or degrees of
freedom gives the dimension of the used spacetime. By adding of scale
dimension to fourdimensional spacetime, we obtain a fivedimensional
manifold, which includes the usual spacetime. According to the order of
historical understanding it may be written in the form (3+1+1)space, where in
the first place reflects spatial dimensions, and then dimensions of the time
and scale. In terms of geometry it is convenient for the axis of all the
dimensions to be perpendicular each other.
According to Sergey Fedosin,
scale dimension is a manifestation of nesting of matter and a consequence of
the transformation of the fundamental forces at different levels of matter.
Scale dimension includes a fourth spatial dimension (the transformation of an
infinite set of objects by changing the size leads to a new similar set), but
also requires conversion of mass and velocity of the processes (the rate of
time) in objects when observer is moving from one level of the scale axis to
another level. This follows from SPФ
symmetry, whereby the physical laws of matter at different levels remain
unchanged from the viewpoint of local observer. As a result, there is the scale
invariance of physical laws, and the principle of general covariance expands,
taking into account the fact that at different levels of matter are different
in power of gravity fields. In addition, the relativity of scale dimension
leads to what "correct" physical equations must be of such form that
the scale conversion left them the same at every level of matter.
In fourdimensional spacetime,
simple fourdimensional body can be considered as a body consisting of a set of
forms that takes a certain threedimensional body for a certain period of time.
Model of a fourdimensional body
with regard to the three spatial dimensions and the scale dimension is a set of
threedimensional bodies, located on a specific law on the scale axis. These
threedimensional bodies must change their dimensions in the appropriate size
range, set the dimensions of the fourdimensional body. Incision of
fourdimensional body at some point of the scaleaxis shows threedimensional
body as the cross section of the scaleaxis. More precisely, in point of the
section should be threedimensional image of half the threedimensional body
(to see the rest of the body is necessary to turn and look at it from the other
side). In place of the cross section one can also imagine a projection of
threedimensional image of the half body on one side of the plane of the
section. Similarly, a model of threedimensional body is a discrete or
continuous set of closely interrelated surfaces, together giving an image of
this body, and the section of the body gives a surface. Relationship between
threedimensional bodies in this fourbody can be defined by the similarity
theory (see similarity of matter levels).
Division by cutting threedimensional body into pieces and carrying of these
parts in space does not mean the loss of threedimensional body, it begins to
exist in a new form and even has the opportunity to build back to its original
state. Fourdimensional body can be thought as a separated individual
threedimensional bodies, in various configurations or when an assembly take
place, occurs one or another fourdimensional form.
The trivial case is possible when
the scale axis is combined with one of the usual spatial dimensions. In this
case, the instantaneous transfer of threedimensional body along the axis of
the spatialscale dimension gives a trace in the form of a degenerate
fourdimensional body. Outwardly, it looks as though threedimensional body is
disproportionately altered in some spatial direction, elongated, compressed,
warping, bends, twists, etc. In painting, there are works that reflect similar
experiments with threedimensional space. Scale change can be represented as a
contraction of threedimensional body in a certain direction until the
transformation of the body in the plane, with subsequent expansion in the
opposite direction to the isomeric form of threedimensional body. Thus it
turns out the body, turned inside out, which left replaced by right.
Introduction of time increases
the number of dimensions to five. If scale dimension is considered, taking into
account the time in the volume of space where there is a three, fouror
fivedimensional body, we can trace the change of the scaling properties
(volume, mass, material composition and other properties of the body) as a
function of time.
From the physical point of view scale
dimension can not come down simply to the spatial proportional changes in body
shape and volume. If there is a small wooden model of a multistory building,
then is constructed in the fullsize building can not exist, because of its
weight, it will crush the lower floors. The reason for this is that with the
increase of size the mass increases in proportion to the cube of this size,
that is much faster. This implies that similar to each other bodies at
different levels of matter can not consist of one and the same substance in the
same state. Properties of the material should be such that at every level of
matter to ensure the existence of objects. As a rule, as the size of the
objects in the transition from one level to another matter is increasing, there
is a reduction of the density of objects and of the characteristic speed of its matter. ^{[1]}
Latter can be understood as a slowing of speed of time of similar processes.
For example, the largersized objects, the longer it takes them one revolution
around its axis of rotation, longer lasting other typical processes.
When we moving deeper into the
matter is found the opposite trend. Thus, the nucleons at the atomic level of
matter are analogues of neutron stars in the star level of matter, and the
average density of the nucleons over the matter density of neutron stars (6.1∙
10^{17} kg/m^{3} and 3.7 ∙ 10^{17} kg/m^{3},
respectively). Characteristic speed of
the matter of the nucleons is the speed of light m/s, and for the matter of neutron stars, the characteristic speed is m/s. These speeds are determined so that
with their help, according to mass–energy equivalence, it was possible
to determine the full energy of the corresponding object: for a proton with the
mass the absolute value of full energy is , and for a neutron star with the mass the same energy is . If neutron stars are composed of more
dense nucleons then nucleons must consist of more dense particles of matter
than the nucleons themselves.
In accordance with a change in
physical properties of matter at different levels of matter there is also
changing the existing forces. If at the level of planets and stars the main
force is gravity, forming the spherical shape of bodies and control their
motion near each other, then at the atomic level the same role is played by strong gravitation. In this case, strong gravitational constant is by many
orders higher than the normal gravitational
constant.
The hierarchy of spacebased
systems is that they are grouped in separate scales, located about equidistant
from each other on a logarithmic scale sizes. This implies similarity of matter levels, when between
the various levels similarity relations are derived not only in size but also
in the masses, in the speed of similar processes and in other physical
parameters. Consequence of the similarity are the stellar constants, discreteness of stellar parameters, hydrogen system, quantization of parameters of cosmic systems,
gravitational model of strong interaction,
the substantial models of neutron, proton and electron.
Thanks to the nesting of certain
matter levels in another levels the more massive objects are composed of
particles of lower levels of matter. This leads to the relationship of
characteristics of objects and states of matter, as well as the symmetry
between the properties of particles of matter and the properties of objects,
which is manifested through the relationship of similarity. In this case may be
found the basic and intermediate levels of matter. At the basic levels of
matter current fundamental forces, gravitation and electromagnetic forces,
reach a maximum. At the same time the density of matter objects increasing; the
gravitational force of attraction at first oppose the electromagnetic force,
and then strong interaction. Examples here include:
The role of weak interaction
reduces to the fact that under the action of the fundamental forces and the
strong interaction of objects after their formation take place a slow
transformation of matter. For example, a neutron in a very large time by the
standards of atomic processes turns into a proton, an electron and a neutrino.
The transformation of the matter can be significantly accelerated by external
factors. Thus, the incident on an elementary particle a neutrino can easily
convert the matter of the particle and cause it to decay into other particles.
From the described is seen that
the realization and manifestation of the scale dimension in nature can be
represented as an infinite scaling ladders with steps – the levels of matter,
which contain all known objects of the universe. In this case, similar objects
at different levels are not simple enlarged or reduced copies of each other, as
distinguished by their matter and its properties, and rate of the time. At the
highest step of the scale space ladder we are seeing large galactic system and
Metagalaxy, behind which must be placed even larger objects. At the bottom the
elementary particles are discovered, still hypothetical partons and preons, as
well as other smaller carriers of matter. In particular, the particles of which
must consist of nucleons, is given the name praons.^{[10]}
The scale dimension characterizes
the nesting levels of matter as a structural feature that specifies the order
of material objects, adjusting their properties. There is a law of philosophy
of breeding structures, which is formulated as follows: ^{[11]}
"Structures are contained in the essence of things and events and determined their quality, have mechanisms of reproduction, resulting in maintaining the integrity of these structures and distribution them through other things and objects. "
Another philosophical law
describes the similarity of the carriers on different scale levels of the
matter:
"Carrier distribution in mass (in size, while others related to the mass parameters) take place according to the law of geometric progression, highlighting at each step of the characteristic and dominant carriers, the major carriers and their satellites, and between carriers in separate steps, and between whole sets of steps are observed ratio similarity."
Stability of largescale
staircase of matter as a manifestation of the structure of nested levels of
matter derives from the very method of formation of new material objects is
dynamic in nature and is a consequence of multiple interactions of matter
particles and field quanta. On the one hand, the disparate pieces of matter
pulled together by gravitational forces and form a dense matter of new massive
objects. With the growth of the mass of the objects in them is growing internal
pressure increases the energy of the particles, which leads to a change in
state of matter. At a basic level of matter occurs balance between the inflow
and outflow of mass at the objects. This is illustrated by the massive main
sequence stars, which are due to the high temperature emit huge amounts of
energy and losing mass due to the expiration of the matter, thereby
compensating inflow of matter from the outside. For neutron stars are also
detected a slight variation of their mass, since the incident upon them matter
"sprayed" in thermonuclear flashes. Apparently, neutron stars, as
stellar analogs of the neutron, and magnetars, as analogues of protons have a
maximum density which is attainable in stable objects under normal gravitation
(the same should be for the nucleons and the strong
gravitation).
On the other hand, the theory of
infinite hierarchical nesting of matter predicts that the quanta of the
gravitational field are produced mainly in the processes associated with the
formation and transformation of matter of objects at the basic levels of
matter. Thus, the formation of neutron stars in supernova explosion accompanies
powerful neutrino emission. Neutron stars and magnetars can emit jets; they are
sources of Xrays and gamma rays, as well as cosmic rays. The same is true for
nucleons – they emit a neutrino, fluxes of matter and electromagnetic radiation.
All these radiations may be part of gravitons, the carriers of the
gravitational field in the Le Sage's theory of gravitation. Calculations show,
based on the energy density flux of gravitons that the source of gravitons for
normal gravity are the emission of particles at two or even three main levels
lower than the star.^{[12]}
Thus, the fundamental fields
forming objects at different levels of matter, and these objects in turn
generate photons of fundamental fields, already operating at higher scale
levels of matter. With regard to the objects of intermediate levels of matter,
they are formed not only by the action of the fundamental forces, but also in
the process of interaction of objects with each other or with the increase in
mass, or the disintegration into smaller components. Thus, during the formation
of planets of Solar System in numerous clashes occurred a separation between
the planets, moons, asteroids, meteorites, comets, cosmic dust and
micrometeorites, and these objects have taken some scale niches in mass and
size. Analysis of these niches shows that the objects in them to the masses and
sizes relate to each other in a geometric progression, and the transition
between niches take place by the law of transition from quantity to quality. ^{[11]} In each niche can be allocated specific
major carriers, standard carriers and the boundary points of action, in which
objects become unstable under existing conditions.
Scale dimension describes not only
the natural physical or chemical related objects, but also suitable for
describing of the living beings. It turns out that living beings and carriers
of life faithfully replicate key features of objects of different levels of
matter, since arranged at the same levels of matter in relation to their size
and mass.^{[13]}
Like other carriers of matter,
living beings can form an infinite nesting of levels of living, so that in
every organism, there are many levels with the appropriate living carriers at
these levels. Living matter is a complex interplay of living and nonliving, and
the living is clearly governs and dominates the inanimate. In turn, the
inanimate has living inside, but apparently not in the manifest, in a weak
form. Evolution of living in scale dimension is not only the progress in space
and time, but also the transformation of the structure of the living in order
to adapt to the changing conditions of existence of the new scales.
Study of scale dimension and
objects belonging to it is engaged in the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter.
This theory presents itself as an interdisciplinary systems science and part of
systems theory, which deals with the space systems of various scales.
Discovering of scale dimension for scientific research is not just pushing the
horizons of science,^{[14]} but also allows us to find
previously unknown patterns in physics and mathematics. ^{[15]}
The detection of direct links between micro, macro and megaworlds of our
universe allows us to understand its evolution as the evolution of
hierarchically nested levels of matter, to clarify the picture of the world, ^{[16]} and to include in the scientific thinking new
concepts and lines of development. From a practical point of view the
substantial models of elementary particles built on the base of the theory of
similarity, can make significant and necessary complement to the quantum
mechanics and the theory of elementary particles, which can lead to useful results
in physics and in technology.
New opportunities are created in
biology as the science about life and living beings. Living beings can be
understood as the active open systems with an infinite nesting of living
systems inside and deep inner sources of ordering, which dictate behavior, and
ensure the functioning of such systems. The expansion of the living can take
place both within the same level of matter (moving in uninhabited territory),
and by moving to new levels of matter. Last inevitably requires adjustment of
the living forms of existence, since a large increase in the size of the
habitat make problems with the integrity of the entire system in the
environment and the slowdown resource allocation processes. Knowledge of the
existence strategy and of the evolution of living is quite important for the
development of humanity as a whole.
In medicine, science has come to
ensure that at the genetic level to reproduce clones of living organisms from a
single genetic material and correct gene to cure some diseases. It is also
planned to use genetic methods to protect against dangerous microorganisms and
viruses. However, as it follows from the theory of infinite hierarchical
nesting of matter, must exist such creatures whose size is much smaller than
prions, the smallest of the currently known particles of the living. In this
case, the disease may be associated with these creatures and finding of it is
beyond the capabilities of modern medicine. To study these living particles now
known nanotechnology should be replaced by even more powerful research methods.